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Printed In the TTnlted States of Amerlo* 

Miss Lochie Rankin 




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Fifty years have passed since the women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, received the author- 
ization of the General Conference to organize the 
Woman's Missionary Society throughout the bounds of 
the Church. That date. May 23, 1878, was epoch mak- 
ing in the history of the womanhood of the Church and 
has had untold significance in the record of the building 
of the Kingdom of God, 

Starting with a few scattered and weak societies, 
the organization has grown till it numbers this 
Golden Jubilee Year, 1928, three hundied and twenty- 
seven thousand women, young people, and children 
within the bounds of the United States, But this is by 
no means its greatest achievement nor the supreme 
source of its joy. As the women come to celebrate their 
Jubilee of years they find their chiefest inspiration in 
the groups of women in China, Korea, Japan, Mexico, 
Brazil, Africa, Belgium, Poland, and Czechoslovakia 
who have caught a like vision and are similarly organ- 
ized to evangelize and Christianize the world. 

Beginning fifty years ago with the slogan to be found 
everywhere in their early literature "Woman's Work 
for Woman," they have reached the end of the fifty 
years with this initial slogan completely outgrown. 
They find themselves linked up with these women of 
other lands in a great cooperative movement for the 
Christianization of womankind around the world. 

Looking backward, therefore, over the past fifty years 
of organized eflfort at home and abroad, it would seem 


8 Women and the Kingdom 

that there has been laid the foundation of a great super- 
fellowship, "a world missionary sisterhood " The one 
outstanding feature of the missionary work of women for 
the next half century will be the cooperative effort of 
women around the world seeking to establish the King- 
dom of God. Little did the women who had the vision 
fifty years ago realize the greatness of the undertaking 
to which they had placed their hand. There was a 
Master Builder who was assuredly guiding. 

In tracing the significant facts that have entered into 
the writing of this story, there have been available all 
the reports of the organized societies, together with the 
Church Advocates and missionary periodicals. The chief 
source of material, especially concerning the growth of 
the Home Base, is altogether new and fresh. Each con- 
ference society as a phase of its pre-Jubilee preparation 
has had a historian at work gathering all the choice 
facts of its conference history giving especial emphasis 
to the story of the beginnings. A few of the leaders of 
fifty years ago are still living and have been the source 
of priceless information. It is from the conference his- 
torians, however, that much of the inspiration for this 
new record of the past has come, and to them we are 
deeply indebted. To the Scarritt College students 
taking my course on "The Modern Missionary Move- 
ment" in 1926, I am greatly indebted for painstaking 
research of original sources. 

In reviewing the work of the fifty years, the last 
eighteen of which have been years of united service to 
meet the needs at home and abroad. It has been deemed 
desirable to try to give an around-the-world-vlew of 
women's activities. The terms "home" and "foreign" 
missions are meaning less and less these days. We see 

Women and the Kingdom 9 

their inter-dependence as never before, and desire to end 
our first half century by thinking of the work as one 
and seeing more clearly this inter-relationship. 

A review of the record of the years reveals another 
significant development. Starting without any experi- 
ence in organized missionary work, the women of the 
Church during the fifty years have attained such ef- 
ficiency that the work enterprised by them has gradually 
become an integral part of the Board of Missions, with 
women serving as members and as secretaries with 
responsibility not only for the policies of the Woman's 
Work but the work of the Church as a whole. 

Has the slogan, "Woman's Work for Woman," been 
outgrown? Will it. have any part in the thinking of the 
next half century? There are undoubtedly indications 
that some of the conditions at home and abroad that 
entered into this concept no longer exist. There has 
been marvelous growth in the Church and in woman- 
hood. There is one fact that stands out clearly — that 
our missionary sisters in other lands are now beginning 
where we began fifty years ago. They are facing many 
of the same problems and conditions. Unless the 
women of the Church in America continue to be related 
sympathetically to these women abroad they will fail 
to share with them the rich experience of the years and 
to catch inspiration from them in working together at 
the common task of bringing in the Kingdom. 

Mabel K. Howell. 

June 1, 1928 


Chapter Page 

1. Creative Forces; the Background of 1878 15 

Developments in China — Beginnings of Missions in 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South — Special Appeal 
to Women to Organize for Missions — Missionary 
Societies in the South before the Separation of the 
Methodisms — Missionary Societies Organized between 
1844 and 1878— A Creative Vision— Two Creative Gifts. 

2. The Fulfillment of the Vision; Organizing for 

Service 43 

Creating a Connectional Organization for Service 
Abroad — The Development of Conference Societies — 
Creating a Connectional Organization for Service at 
Home — Enlisting the Children and Young People for 
Service — Becoming a Part of the General Board of 
Missions — Interesting Experiences by the Way. 

3. The Enlarging Program and Outlook 68 

Entering the Fields — the Goal of AH Efforts — Growth 
in the Size of the Constituency — Education of the 
Constituency for Service — (1) Leaflet Literature — 
(2) Mission Study— (3) Home Base Established — (4) 
Periodicals. Provisions for the Spiritual Growth — 
(1) Bible Classes — (2) Cultivation of Prayer Life. 
Growing Appreciation of the Meaning of Stewardship; 
Actual Gifts — Enlargement of Outlook and Conception 
of Missionary Task — (1) Interdependence of Home 
and Foreign Missions — (2) Interdenominational Co- 
operation — (3) First-Hand Knowledge of Fields — (4) 
Laity Rights for Women — (5) Call to Make the Church 

4. Achievements in Field of Higher Education 87 

Introduction — Colleges — (1) Ginling College, Nan- 
king, China — (2) Woman's Christian Medical College, 
Shanghai, China — (3) Ewha College, Seoul, Korea — 
(4) Hiroshima College, Hiroshima, Japan — (5) Mary 
Keener Institute, Mexico City, Mexico. Norma! 
Schools and Normal Departments — (1) Laura Haygood 
Normal School, Soochow, China — (2) Colegio Roberts, 
Saltillo, Mexico — (3) Colegio Buenavista, Havana, 
Cuba — (4) Collegio Piracicabano, Piracicaba, Brazil — 


12 Women and the Kingdom 

Chapter Page 

(5) Collegio Bennett, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil — (6) Col- 
legio Centenario, Santa Maria, Brazil — (7) Sue Bennett 
School, London, Ky. Bible Training Schools — (1) 
Hayes Wilkins Bible School, Sungkiang, China — (2) 
Bible Teachers' Training School, Nanking, China — 
(3) Lambuth Training School for Christian Workers, 
Osaka, Japan — (4) Woman's Biblical Seminary, Seoul, 
Korea. Palmore Woman's English Institute, Kobe, 
Japan — Departments of Bible, State Universities. 

5. Achievements in Field of Secondary Education. . . 126 

Introduction — Secondary Education in China — (1) 
McTyeire School, Shanghai — (2) Virginia School, 
Huchow — (3) Atkinson Academy, Soochow — (4) David- 
son Girls' School, Soochow — (5) Susan Bond Wilson, 
Sungkiang. Secondary Education in Korea — (1) Hol- 
ston Institute — (2) Carolina Institute — (3) Lucy Cun- 
inggim. Girls' School, Wonsan. Secondary Education 
in Brazil — (1) Collegio Isabella Hendrix, Bello Hori- 
zonte — (2) Collegio Methodista, Rebeirao Preto — 
(3) Collegio Americano, Porto Alegre — (4) Collegio 
Mineiro, Juiz de Fora. Secondary Education in Mexico 
— Institute Ingles-Espanol, Monterrey. Secondary 
Education in United States — (1) Holding Institute, 
Laredo, Tex. — (2) Brevard Institute, Brevard, N. C. — 
(3) Ruth Hargrove Institute, Key West, Fla. Secon- 
dary Education in Cuba — (1) Colegio Irene Toland, 
Matanzas — (2) Colegio Eliza Bowman, Cienfuegos. 

6. Achievements in Field of Elementary and Indus- 

trial Education 151 

Day Schools and Kindergartens — (1) General State- 
ment — (2) Day Schools and Kindergartens in China — 
(3) Day Schools and Kindergartens in Korea — (4) Kin- 
dergartens in Japan — (5) Day Schools and Kindergar- 
tens in Latin America — (6) Schools for Cubans and 
Orientals in the United States. Elementary Boarding 
Schools — (1) General Statement — (2) Colegio Paolmre, 
Chihuahua, Mexico — (3) Institute MacDonell, Du- 
rango, Mexico — (4) Colegio Progreso, Parral, Mexico — 
(5) Elementary Girls' Schools in the Belgian Congo, 
Africa — (6) Elementary Girls' Schools on the Mexican 
Border — (7) MacDonell French Mission School, Houma, 
La. Industrial Schools — (1) The Mary Helm Industrial 
School, Songdo, Korea — (2) The Virginia K. Johnson 
Home and School, Dallas, Tex. — (3) The Vashti School, 

Women and the Kingdom 13 

Chapter Page 

Thomasville, Ga. — (4) The Moka Garden Embroidery 
Mission, Soochow, China — (5) Methvin Institute. 
Short-Term Bible Schools for Adults in Korea. 

7. Social-Evangelistic Work 180 

Introduction — District Evangelistic Work in China 
and Korea — Rural Evangelistic Work in the United 
States — Growth of City Mission Work in the United 
States — (1) General Development — (2) Work in Foreign 
and Polyglot Communities — (3) Work among English- 
Speaking Communities — (4) Work with Negroes — 
Bethlehem Houses. Social-Evangelistic Centers on 
Foreign Fields — Cooperative Homes for Young Women. 

8. Medical Work and Social Service 214 

Appeal of Physical Suffering — Medical Work in China 
— Medical Work in Korea — Medical Work in Africa — 
Medical Work in Mexico — Medical Work in the United 
States — •Christianizing the Social Order — Interracial 

9. The Sisterhood around the World 237 

Restatement of Advance — Sisterhood in Service — 
Creative Forces — Training for Service in Other Lands — 
Woman's Missionary Societies — (1) The Society in 
China — (2) The Society in Korea — (3) The Society in 
Japan — (4) The Society in Mexico — (5) The Society in 
Brazil — (6) The Society in Cuba — (7) The Society in 
Congo Beige, Africa — (8) The Society among European 
and Russian Women. Others in the Sisterhood. 

10. Signs of Promise; the Next Fifty Years 262 

Message of the Silver Jubilee — Significance of Jeru- 
salem Conference — Commission on Reevaluation — New 
Factors in the Missionary Situation — (1) Unredeemed 
Areas of Life — (2) Growth of Churches on Fields — 
(3) Changed Status of Woman's Work — (4) The 
Church More Missionary. Signs of Promise from the 
Fields — (1) Outlook in China — (2) Outlook in Japan — 
(3) Outlook in Latin America — (4) Outlook in Africa. 
Abiding Motives — {I) Outworn Terminology — (2) Un- 
worthy Motives — (3) Motives That Will Stand the Test. 




That which happened in Atlanta, May 23, 1878, 
when the General Conference of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, gave authorization to the women of 
the Church to create an organization to take the gospel 
of Christ to the womanhood of other lands was not an 
isolated event. The fifty years preceding, and more 
especially the last half of that period, had very definitely 
prepared the way. 

Developments in China 

It is well to recognize the significance of these pre- 
paratory days in China, the first country to which the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and, consequently, 
the women of the Church, directed its foreign missionary 
effort. In 1842, China signed her first treaty with a 
Western nation — with Great Britain after the first 
Opium War. This treaty was followed, in 1844, by 
similar treaties with the United States and France. 
Additional treaties, granting other powers and strength- 
ening the position of nations under existing treaties, 
were signed in 1858 and 1860. China, the nation that 
had kept herself aloof for so many years, was now open 
for the first time to trade with the world. 

It is difficult for those far removed to realize the sig- 

'nificance of such an event. A letter to George III of 

England, in response to one sent by him seeking to 


16 Women and the Kingdom 

secure the right of envoys at China's court, was sent 
years before the events we are discussing and indicates 
clearly the real attitude of the Chinese nation, even in 
later days. This letter was written in all seriousness 
and should be regarded so if we would appreciate its 
meaning for the age we are surveying. The letter is as 
follows : 

"If you assert that your reverence for our celestial 
Dynasty fills you with the desire to acquire our civili- 
zation, our ceremonies and laws differ so completely 
from your own that, even if your envoys were able to 
acquire the rudiments of our civilization, you could not 
possibly transport our manners and customs to your 
alien soil. Therefore, however adept the envoy might 
become, nothing would be gained thereby. ... As 
your ambassador can see for himself, we possess all 
things. I set no value on objects strange and ingenious 
and have no use for your country's manufactures. This, 
then, is my answer to your request to appoint a repre- 
sentative at my court, a request contrary to our dynastic 
usage which could only result in inconvenience to your- 
self. I have expressed my wishes in detail and have 
commanded your tribute envoys to leave in peace on 
their homeward journey. It behooves you, O King, to 
respect my sentiments and to display even greater de- 
votion and loyalty in fucure, so that by perpetual sub- 
mission to our throne, you may secure peace and pros- 
perity for your country hereafter." ^ , >^ 

Not only during this preparatory period was China 
opened to the influence of the West, but during the 
fourteen years (1850-1864) there had occured in China 

^Hopkins, Henry T., China in the Family of Nations, pages 52-53. 

Women and the Kingdom 17 

the Taiping Rebellion, a civil war that took 20,000,000 
lives, destroyed 600 cities, and affected sixteen of her 
eighteen provinces. What was this rebellion? While 
not originally such, it became a rebellion of the Chinese 
against the Manchus, a foreign people from Manchuria, 
who had been ruling China for two hundred and twenty 
years, and who, in the eyes of the Chinese, were responsi- 
ble for these treaties with foreign powers. It was in 
reality an uprising against influences from without. 
This rebellion, when just on the verge of becoming suc- 
cessful, was put down by the aid of foreigners, Frederick 
Ward of Salem, Mass., and Charles Gordon who, at the 
invitation of Chinese merchants in Shanghai, interfered 
in China's internal affairs. As was natural, the victory 
of the existing Manchu Dynasty, aided by foreigners, 
led the way to still greater influence on the part of 
foreign nations. This was the period of the unequal 
treaties with foreign powers, granting concessions in the 
great port cities, the rights of extra- territoriality, the 
control of Chinese customs by foreign nations, issues 
which are uppermost in the thinking of China to-day, 
because they are infringements upon her sovereign 
rights. One of the outstanding clauses in these unequal 
treaties provided for the toleration of Christianity and 
the protection of native Christians. Since 1724, Chris- 
tianity had been proscribed by imperial edict. 

Robert Morrison had gone to China, in 1807. Others 
had followed him, but up to the time of these treaties, 
there had been no opportunity to do missionary work, 
openly, on the soil of China proper. These early pio- 
neers had to work by indirect means. Morrison learned 
the language and began his translation of the Bible 
while hiding in a warehouse off the coast. Others 

18 Women and the Kingdom 

worked a short distance away, on the Malay Peninsula 
publishing the Bible, grammars, and tracts; they even 
began an Anglo-Chinese college. All along the coast, 
Gutslaff distributed Bibles from his little boat. With 
the new treaties, opportunity was at hand for real mis- 
sionary endeavor. 

Beginning Missions in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South 

While these events were going on in China, certain 
very significant developments were taking place in Meth- 
odism at home. The separation of the two Methodisms 
came in 1844, the year the treaty was signed between 
China and the United States. This separation left the 
Methodist Episcopal Chuech, South, with a large home 
mission work but with no foreign missions. At the 
Louisville Convention, in 1845, provision was made to 
take care of the home mission work, which at that time 
embraced conference missions for Negroes, Germans, 
French, and Indians. The Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was organized at 
the first General Conference, meeting in Petersburg, 
Va., in 1846. Bishop Soule was the first president of 
this society. Many missionary certificates, issued by 
him, are still in existence. This General Conference 
recommended that missionaries be sent to China, to 
Africa, and to the Jews, The first missionaries were 
Charles Taylor and Benjamin Jenkins, who reached 
China in 1848. They were followed, in 1852, by Dr. 
and Mrs. W. G. E. Cunnyngham; in 1854 by Dr. and 
Mrs. J. W. Lambuth, Dr. D. C. Kelley, and Rev. and 
Mrs. J. L. Belton; in 1860 by Young J. Allen and Rev. 
M. L. Wood. By 1870, eight missionaries and their 

Women and the Kingdom 19 

families had gone to China, and work had been started 
in Shanghai, Soochow, and Nantziang. In 1875, Rev. 
A. P. Parker went to China, and in 1876 Bishop 
E. M. Marvin made the first episcopal visit to the field, 
accompanied by Rev. E. R. Hendrix. It is an interest- 
ing yet very sad fact that in 1876 Bishop Marvin re- 
ported that after twenty years, the Board of Missions 
was supporting only one missionary, in China ; only three 
remained of all that had been sent. Dr. Young J. Allen 
was being supported by the Chinese government, and 
Dr. A. P. Parker by the Missouri Conference. Bishop 
Marvin wrote an account of his trip under the title To 
the East by Way of the West, and Dr. Hendrix wrote 
Around the World, Each contributed articles to the 
Nashville Christian Advocate. The Church was deeply 
moved by these first-hand accounts. In 1877, Dr. 
Walter R. Lambuth joined the diminished force; he 
went to take up the medical work laid down by his 
father-in-law, Dr. D. C. Kelley. 

The records of these first years show how great the 
influence of these early pioneers was upon the Church 
at home and especially upon the women of the Church. 
The women kept up correspondence with the mis- 
sionaries' wives. They scanned the Church papers for 
any bit of news regarding these beloved pioneers. When 
Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth returned in 1875 and 
visited many sections of the Church, women responded 
to the appeals of Mrs. Lambuth for her girls' school. 
The women of Georgia were swept off their feet by the 
pleas of Young J. Allen, especially by his account of the 
conditions of Chinese womanhood and childhood. It 
was the first time that most of them had ever seen a 
missionary from China or, indeed, from any field. 

20 Women and the Kingdom 

North Carolina women say that the spirit of missions 
was born among women in that Conference in the old 
Greensboro Female College, in 1859, when Ellen Mor- 
phis, a graduate of the college, married Rev. M. L. 
Wood, who sailed for China with Dr. Young J. Allen, 
December 17, 1859. It took them seven months to 
make the voyage, one hundred and fifty days of which 
they were out of sight of land. Mrs. Lucy Cuninggim 
and Mrs. F. M. Bumpass, of that Conference, pioneers 
in woman's work, claimed to have received their initial 
inspiration for missions from this event, which to them 
was so significant. There is a fascinating story of a 
missionary meeting that was held in Centenary Church, 
Richmond, Va., in 1854. Bishop Andrew presided and 
Rev. Benjamin Jenkins, a returned missionary from 
China, was present. How full of meaning were these 
words, "returned missionary." Benjamin Jenkins had 
brought a Chinese gentleman home with him, and great 
was the impression made on the hearts of those present 
by the first Chinese they had ever seen. It was at this 
meeting that Rev. J. W. Lambuth was ordained. 
The record also tells of the presence of Mrs. Juliana 
Hayes and of her enthusiasm. One wonders that her 
zeal did not consume her, so great was her passion for 
missions throughout the years. 

Special Appeal to Women to Organize for Missions 

A study of the years under review reveals very sig- 
nificant facts regarding the reasons for the special en- 
listment of women, in separate organizations, for the 
work of missions. It was in this period that the slogan, 
"Woman's Work for Woman," began to be used. It 
was not initiated by women, nor was it the expression 

Women and the Kingdom 21 

of a desire for rights ; it was a slogan used by men as a 
basis of appeal to women. To-day, when this slogan is 
being discounted and regarded as outgrown, it is well 
to pause long enough to realize its origin and the creative 
forces that brought it into existence. 

The first special appeal to women, as such, according 
to available records, was in 1834, ten years before 
China's first treaty with the United States. The story 
is given by Mrs. Helen Barrett Montgomery:^ 

"In the summer of 1834 an American missionary in 
China, the Rev. David Abeel, was on his way home to 
recruit his shattered health, the regular route at that 
time being by way of England. While in London Mr. 
Abeel was invited to address a little company of ladies 
gathered in a private dining room, at what was destined 
to be the most important afternoon tea in history. The 
missionary was fresh from his work, burning with a deep 
conviction. The helplessness and misery of the women 
of the Orient had profoundly troubled him, and he had 
seen also the hopelessness of attempting to dislodge 
heathenism while its main citadel, the home, was un- 
reached and unreachable by the agencies then employed. 
Thinking long and deeply on the problem, he had come 
to the revolutionary doctrine that It was absolutely 
necessary to bring into the field unmarried women to 
reach and teach the women and children. Men were 
shut out from this ministry by the iron-bound bars of 
custom that imprisoned women In zenanas (Abeel had 
come back by India), secluding them from contact with 
the world. The missionary wife at best could give only 
a fragment of her strength and time to the work. Then 

^Montgomery, Helen Barrett, Western Women in Eastern 
Lands, pages 21-31. 

22 Women and the Kingdom 

why not send out single women to minister to the un- 
counted millions of women in non-Christian lands? He 
had come home with a message; he was eager to deliver 
it, and this was his first opportunity. The hearts of the 
women were stirred as he told them not only of the 
degradation which his own eyes had witnessed in India, 
but as he delivered the message of some Chinese women 
who had asked of him, 'Are there no female men who 
can come to teach us?'" 

The result of this appeal was the organization of the 
Society for Promoting Female Education in the East. 
It was inter-denominational and independent. There 
were those who seriously called in question the desira- 
bility of sending out unmarried women; but women 
decided it should be done, and if it could not be done 
through the regular channels of the Church it could be 
done by them alone in a plus organization. This London 
society was the oldest woman's missionary organization. 
Mr. Abeel returned to America and made the same 
appeal to a similar group in New York, the leading 
spirit of which was a Mrs. Doremus. The result was 
the organization, in 1861, of the Women's Union Mis- 
sionary Society. It was the first society of its kind in 
America, and Mrs. Doremus was its president. In spite 
of the Civil War, its work was continued . Branches were 
established as far South as Louisville, Ky. Miss Isabel 
Hart, in Historical Sketches of Women's Missionary 
Societies in England and America, written in 1879 and 
dedicated to Mrs. Doremus, says that the object of this 
society was to form a direct channel whereby single 
women, untrammelled by the duties of wives and 
mothers, might Christianize exclusively heathen women 
for whom no other mode of elevation was practicable. 

Women and the Kingdom 23 

By 1878, during the eighteen years that this Society 
had been working, $494,912 had been raised and ninety- 
two single women missionaries sent out. The organi- 
zation was founded on the principle that no contri- 
bution was to be diverted from denominational boards 
and that no paid officers were to be employed. The 
Woman's Union Missionary Society was the historical 
beginning of "Woman's Work for Woman" in the United 
States; it is a great force in missions to-day. Mrs Julia 
H. Bronson, the Secretary of this Board, celebrated the 
Golden Jubilee with the women of Southern Methodism, 
as a fraternal messenger to the annual meeting of the 
Woman's Missionary Council. 

The organization of women on denominational lines 
followed quickly these inter-denominational beginnings. 
The Congregational women organized in 1868. There 
was decided opposition to a separate woman's organi- 
zation in that Church, but the appeal of outstanding 
missionaries upheld the movement and opposition was 
withdrawn. They organized "for the benefit of their 
sex in heathen lands." They had learned, they said, 
that during the mighty conflict of preceding years, which 
had called forth the energies of our country, that there 
was work for woman also and that quite within her own 
sphere. She might find ample scope and pressing need 
for her unceasing labors, watchings, and prayers. ^ 

The first denominational group to follow the Con- 
gregational women was the women of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. They, too, met with opposition. 
One noted leader of the denomination wrote: "Some of 
the thoughtful minds are beginning to ask, what is to 

^Montgomery, Helen Barrett, Western Women in Eastern 
Lands, page 29. 

24 Women and the Kingdom 

become of tnis Woman's Movement in the Church?" 
Then, taking heart, he continued: "Let them alone. All 
throughout history like movements have started. Do 
not oppose them, and it will die out."^ This same 
leader always attended the women's prayer meetings. 
He remarked that you never could tell what these 
women might take to praying for if left alone. In spite 
of opposition the women organized, March 23, 1869, 
nine years and a month before the women of the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, South, received their authori- 
zation. Miss Isabella Thoburn was the first missionary 
sent out by this sister society. The women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, had the same 
motive in organizing for service that had prompted the 
women of other denominations. In fact, their earliest 
activity was in the days when the Methodisms were one. 

Missionary Societies in the South before the 
Separation of Methodism 

_ , _, There are records of interesting 

Jonesboro, Tenn. , . . .... 

woman s missionary societies in the 

South, existing before 1844. An 
editorial in The Western American and Christian Instruc- 
tor, dated February, 1826, expresses the sentiment of 
the Church regarding the rights and duties of women. 
It tells of the organization, in 1824, of a "Wesleyan 
Female Society" in Jonesboro, Tenn. The society was 
composed altogether of "females" and its object was to 
raise a fund to be appropriated exclusively toward the 
support of the gospel in the Holston Conference of the 

1 Montgomery, Helen Barrett, Western Women in Eastern 
Lands page 30. 

Women and the Kingdom 25 

Methodist Episcopal Church. So far as we can tell it 
was one of the earliest woman's home missionary so- 
cieties. It held regular meetings on the first Monday 
of each quarter of the year. The constitution is still in 
existence. At the second session of the Holston Con- 
ference, held in Jonesboro, in 1825, the Society paid to 
the Conference S40.25 to assist in supplying the defi- 
ciencies in the salaries of the preachers. The secretary 
of the Society was Mrs. Harriet Ross. The editorial to 
which reference has been made, reads as follows: "How 
worthy an object of benevolence does this society con- 
template! to extend the good cause of the Divine Re- 
deemer, that religion to which we are indebted for our 
elevation above the red man of the forest. The lovely 
and retiring modesty of the female sex, together with 
their delicate structure, forbids that they shall ever 
rival the hardy sons of Levi in the gross services of the 
altar. The Kind Author of our being never designed 
them to 'go out into the highways and hedges' in search 
of lost sinners, to cross the everlasting mountains and 
traverse the weary waste in order proclaim 'glad tidings 
of good things to all people.' And yet they may be 
abundantly useful; yea they are greatly so. They not 
only welcome weary pilgrims to their friendly mansions 
and hospitable cottages, but tbey warm, clothe, and feed 
them with the best they have./ 

Never can the women of Southern Methodism fully 
appreciate the point from which they started in service 
for the Kingdom of God and the Church until they can 
read this editorial without a smile. There was, indeed, 
a time when women were regarded because of their 
"delicate structure," unfitted for the "gross service of 
the altar" and unfitted to bear their share in the evangel- 

26 Women and the Kingdom 

ization of the world at home and abroad. The Great 
Commission and its obhgations were mercifully denied 
to them as women. It is difficult to believe that there 
ever was such a day, yet we have additional evidences 
from the pens of women themselves. May our sisters 
of this country and of other lands be comforted! 

The earliest record of organized mls- 
Lynchburg, Va. . i j ^ i u ^u 

sionary work undertaken by the wom- 
en of Virginia dates back to 1832. 
The Female missionary Society of Lynchburg was then 
organized with eighty-one of the leading women of the 
town as members. "It was the first successful attempt 
of the Methodist women of the State to do organized 
Church work." It was a pioneer of pioneers in Virginia. 
It is fascinating to read the record of this Society. The 
object as set forth in its constitution was as follows: 
"Being deeply sensible of the unmerited goodness of 
our Heavenly Father in having cast our lot in the land 
of light and liberty, and having bestowed upon us the 
invaluable privileges of the gospel, we deem it our duty 
to put our mites into the treasury of the Lord to aid in 
sending the good news of salvation to those who know 
not a Saviour." 

Most interesting sections of the reports of this Society 
from time to time give an insight into their missionary 
motives and attitudes; they are very significant in these 
days when we are reevaluating missionary motives. In 
the report of 1834 we read: "We appeal to the females 
of Lynchburg in behalf of the heathen. Behold the con- 
dition of heathen females. Contrast it with our own. 
Do we not owe something to Him who has so wonder- 
fully cast our lot in a land of Bibles? Are we not in- 
debted for the station we hold in society? Do we not 

Women and the Kingdom 27 

desire tne evangelization of the heathen?" In 1841 
they seem to have been even more deeply stirred by the 
condition of the heathen, for they wrote: "The prevail- 
ing condition of the heathen world moves our compas- 
sion, and the degraded state of our own sex among them 
awakens anew our sympathies. If we would see the 
great end of missionary labor accomplished we must use 
extraordinary efiforts, for such alone are productive of 
extraordinary results." 

In the light of the above, the following words in the 
record of the society in 1843 strike one with amazement: 
"Before Christ's ascension we hear the command: 'Go 
ye into all the world and preach the Gospel to every 
creature.' Happily for our sex this command was not 
given to us. While some few have been called as a wife 
to share alike the toils and pleasures of a missionary, to 
most of us this honor has been denied. But is there no 
place in the scheme of man's redemption for us to 
occupy? Can we be content to fold our arms and be idle 
spectators of this mighty work?" 

This Female Missionary Society in Virginia was in 

existence from 1832 to 1851 until the Lynchburg 

Methodist Church was divided into Court Street and 

Centenary Churches. The organization then went out 

of existence; its forces were divided. The Court Street 

division of the Society, composed of women of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was reorganized 

on June 10, 1878, by Mrs. Juliana Hayes. 

^ , _ An old Nashville Missionary Advo- 

Lebanon, Tenn. . . , r t^ xtt 

. cate contams an article trom Kev. W. 

M. Green regarding a letter to the 

Tennessee Annual Conference received from the Lebanon 

Female Missionary Society. The letter stated that they 

28 Women and the Kingdom 

had accumulated $100 in 1834 and wished to place it at 
the disposal of the Conference to be used toward the 
support of a missionary in Liberia, provided one was 
assigned to that field by the Conference. This question 
was referred to a special committee. It was finally 
accepted with the recommendation that the money be 
used as requested. Melville B. Cox had offered himself 
to the Virginia Conference in 1831 to go to Liberia, 
Africa. He sailed from Norfolk, Va., November 6, 1832, 
arriving in Liberia March 7, 1833. He died in July of 
the same year, saying "Though a thousand fall, let not 
Africa be given up." Evidently this need in Liberia had 
made a profound impression on these women in Leba- 

Bethlehem, Tenn. Another society, interesting be- 

-o,o cause of the part that Mrs. T. M. 

lo38 T;r ,, , 1 . . 

Kelley had m it, was at Bethle- 
hem, Tenn. In the year 1838, at the quarterly meeting 
held In Bethlehem, on the Lebanon Circuit while Rev. 
S. S. Moody was presiding elder and Rev. John M. 
Kelley preacher In charge, the following resolution was 
passed: '^Resolved, That a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to draft a constitution for a missionary society." 
The committee appointed consisted of J. B. Wynne, 
John M. Kelley, and L. Fisher. The memorial that 
called forth this action was born In the heart of Mrs. 
John M. Kelley who figured later In the Nashville 
Society, at McKendree Church. It was said at her 
death: "She was perhaps the brightest spirit that has 
adorned the Methodist Episcopal Church, South." In 
1854, her only son. Dr. D. C. Kelley, went to China 
under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 

Women and the Kingdom 29 

South. Later her granddaughter, Daisy Kelley, be- 
came Mrs. Walter R. Lambuth. 

c,^ T ' %jr A record in St. Louis, tells of an 

St. Louis, Mo. . . . , , , 

-^»o early soceity that was, doubtless a 

forerunner of the Parsonage and 
Home Mission Society. It is doubly interesting be- 
cause of its relation to Centenary Church, It was 
called ' ' The Centenary Female Socie ty , " and was organ- 
ized in 1839. The historian of the St. Louis Conference 
writes: "It was the most unique, the most aggressive, 
and, probably the first of the women's organizations 
that grace the history of the churches now composing 
the St. Louis Conference. It was organized to assist in 
church building and church extension forty-three] years 
before the creation of the Board of Church Extension 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The facts 
are these: The Methodists of St. Louis, in 1839, sub- 
scribed $3,000 to establish a new Church, commemorat- 
ing the centennial of Methodism in that city. It was 
suggested that the women organize a sewing circle to 
assist in paying for the pulpit and seats. This led to 
the organization of the 'Centenary Female Society.* 
The minutes read: 'The men did nothing but brood 
over the sum subscribed without adding one dollar to 
it.' In the meantime, the women located a church site, 
selecced a board of trustees from Fourth Street Church, 
and advanced $2,000 to the trustees as a first payment 
on the site. Between 1839 and 1847 these women 
raised $13,000 for this Church enterprise. There is one 
most interesting record in the existing minutes of the 
Society. There was a provision that a gentleman could 
become an honorary member on the payment of one 
dollar, and a life member on the payment of five. But 

30 Women and the Kingdom 

these words of caution were added: ' In no case shall any 
gentleman have a vote, or in any wise control the de- 
liberations of this Soceity.'" 

Missionary Societies Organized Between 1844 and 


Interesting as are these early women's societies organ- 
ized when the Methodisms were still one, yet of greater 
significance to the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
are those organized after the separation of 1844, societies 
which served as forerunners and inspirers of the action 
of the General Conference in 1878. There were, un- 
doubtedly, may such societies. It would not be possible 
even to list them. There are a few which deserve con- 
sideration without any attempt to establish priority in 
the date of organization. 
, -. . . . The records of the Mississippi Confer- 

MtSStSStppt „ f , . . rr 

_ , ence tell of an early missioary eiiort 

Conference , ^ -^ , , ,• 

jf,-. among the women. It may be the earliest. 

Before the year 1854, which was the date 

of the sailing of Rev. and Mrs. J. W. Lambuth, female 

missionary societies were organized at Natchez and 

Woodvllle, Miss. The going of the Lambuths stirred 

these women to new efforts in behalf of missions. 

„ ,,. ,, , The ladles' China Missionary So- 

Baltimore, Md. . • , • t^ i • \^a 

-„_ ciety, organized in Baltimore, Md., 

in 1848 is one of the most interesting 
of these early societies. The facts regarding it, as given 
by Mrs. Alice H. Strother, the historian of Trinity 
Church, Baltimore, are as follows: "In 1848, Dr. Stephen 
Olin preached a great missionary sermon before the 
Baltimore Conference In the city of Baltimore. The 
next day Mrs. A. L. Davidson, who was present at the 

Women and the Kingdom 31 

Atlanta General Conference in 1878, met Dr. Olin in 
the home of a friend. In the course of the conversation, 
she remarked that there was no avenue for woman's 
work in the Methodist Episcopal Church. 'Create 
one' said he. Encouraged by him to attempt such a 
work, she returned home, pondered, prayed, and de- 
termined to make the effort. The pastors of the various 
churches and the earnest women in them were visited. 
Their cooperation was secured, a meeting called, and a 
band of efficient workers selected. The organization 
was called The Ladies' China Missionary Society of 
Baltimore. It began its work in April, 1848. In the 
spring of 1858, after a decade of work in which they 
had paid annually $500 to the treasury of the General 
Board of the Methodist Church, the ladies were asked 
to take up specific work and establish a school in Foo- 
chow, China, for the education of females. With the 
consent of the General Board, the ladies promptly 
undertook the support of the school, which was called 
The Baltimore Female Seminary. This Ladies China 
Missionary Society functioned all during the Civil War 
and for some years afterwards. On February 16, 1869, 
the women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
withdrew and organized the Trinity Home Mission. In 
1870 the name was changed to Trinity Bible Mission. 
At first glance, it would seem strange that women who 
for twenty years had worked for China should com- 
pletely drop all foreign work. The explanation seems 
to be that during the war the General Board of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was cut off from 
its missionaries, and its work was in confusion. It was 
not a propitious time for Southern Methodist women 
to attempt specific foreign work. In a short time, how- 

32 Women and the Kingdom 

ever, this state of affairs changed, and Rev. J. W. 
Lambuth began to call for help. 

"The ladies ofthe Methodist EpIscopalChurch, South, 
In response to a call from Mrs. Juliana Hayes, then 
president of the Trinity Bible Mission, met in the base- 
ment of Trinity Church, at twelve o'clock, Wednesday, 
March 29, 1872, to take under consideration the for- 
mation of a general society of the Woman's Bible Mission 
which should embrace the entire Church. The pastors 
of Baltimore held their meeting March 25, and, learning 
from Mrs. Hayes of the plan, ofhcially indorsed the 
Woman's Bible Mission of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, promising to promote It. At the meet- 
ing on March 29, a committee was appointed to draft 
a constitution for a connectlonal society. The adjourned 
meeting was held at Central Church April 8, 1872, when 
a constitution of ten articles was adopted. Article one 
read as follows: 'This Society shall be called the. 
Woman's Bible Mission at Home and Abroad of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South,' and article ten: 
'This Society shall act In harmony with the Board of 
Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.' 
The constitution provided for twelve vice presidents and 
twelve managers. Mrs. Juliana Hayes was elected presi- 
dent and Miss Melissa Baker was one of the managers. 

"The first annual meeting of the Woman's Bible Mis- 
sion at Home and Abroad was deferred until May 28, 
1873. Besides the money contributed to the Home De- 
partment of the Society, each auxiliary made a financial 
report of money paid toward the support of a Bible 
woman In China. On motion, $100 of the amount 
received was ordered to be forwarded to China by the 
treasurer, Mrs. C. D. Sewell, to be used for the support 

Women and the Kingdom 33 

of a Bible woman. At the sixth meeting of this society, 
held in April, 1878, a gift of $1,000 was received from 
Miss Achsah Wilkins, of Baltimore, and was used later 
to establish the Louise Home in Nantziang, China, 
named as a memorial for her sister. The Louise Home, 
Miss Lochie Rankin's first residence, was later moved to 
Soochow, China, and still serves as a missionaries' 
home on the compound of Davidson Girls' School." 

As we have already stated, this Baltimore Society 
is of great significance in the history of the woman's 
work of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Dur- 
ing the Civil War period, from 1866-1870, the Board of 
Foreign Missions had its headquarters in Baltimore. 
Mrs. D. H. McGavock, in 1879, wrote an article on the 
Woman's Missionary Society of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, in which she declares: "To the elect 
ladies of Baltimore, Md., belongs the honor of leading 
in this glorious work. Mrs. Juliana Hayes, president of 
the first society, writes: 'Trinity Church, Baltimore, is 
the honored spot where the Woman's Missionary Society 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was organ- 
ized.' For several years this Society, called first the 
Trinity Home Mission, and subsequently the Woman's 
Bible Mission, was strictly domestic in its work. In 
1872 the foreign work was embraced in its operations 
and an eff^ort made to form connectional Societies." ^ 

,, , ,„ ^ In the fall of 1873, Dr. D. C. 

Nashville, Tenn. t^ n i i • nn 

^„_ Kelley began his pastorate at Mc- 

Kendree Church, Nashville, Tenn., 

His mother, Mrs. John M. Kelley (Margaret Lavinia), 

formerly of Bethlehem, Tenn., came to live with him. 

^Hart, Isabel, Historical Sketches of Women's Missionary 
Societies, pages 42-48. 


34 Women and the Kingdom 

" Not many winters elapsed before the one enthusiasm 
of her life expressed itself in an effort to interest the 
leaders of this old and prominent Church in special work 
for the China Mission. The task was no easy one. 
Wealthy and cultured women who were drawn to her 
personally shrank from any new and untried schemes 
of church work.. After months of occasional effort, 
which were by no means encouraging, she began a 
systematic series of visits to induce the ladies to meet 
and form a society to carry forward the work begun in 
Lebanon some years before. The pastor added earnest 
words from the pulpit, with frequent announcements of 
the proposed time of meeting. Fifty or more names 
were secured. The day came. It was a cold day in 
November, 1873. The rain was falling. Only six were 
present. A short while after the appointed time, the 
pastor walked down the aisle where the disconsolate 
little group was gathered around the open register on 
the west side of old McKendree Church. After standing 
a moment he handed his mother a form of organization 
which he had prepared at her request,* saying, 'Organize 
your society just as if the house were full,' and left the 
church. Mrs. Kelley knelt in prayer and committed the 
whole work to her Heavenly Father." ^ 

After months of delay, in April, 1874, the Woman's 
Bible Mission of Nashville, was organized with Mrs. M. 
L. Kelley president. Like the Baltimore Society it, too, 
had both home and foreign missions in its plan. Its 
object was: "To send pecuniary aid to the foreign 
mission fields and to employ efficiently the women at 
home in a systematic visitation and Bible instruction 
of the poor and destitute in their own midst." 

1 Brown, R. K., Life of Mrs. M. L. Kelley, pages 68-70. 

Women and the Kingdom 35 

There must have been very close relation between the 
Baltimore and Nashville societies; both were known as 
the Woman's Bible Mission. The historian of the Balti- 
more Conference writes that at the request of Mrs. 
Kelley, Mrs. Hayes sent her a copy of the constitution 
of the Woman's Bible Mission at Home and Abroad of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, and in the 
years following there was much correspondence between 
the ladies of Nashville and Baltimore, preparatory to 
an appeal to General Conference. 

„. . . There is another society that is right- 

Warren, Ark, ^ ,, . . . . , ,- 

y-_ fully claimmg a place among the first 

societies. Detailed information has been 
given regarding this society by Mrs. Frances McKin- 
non Morton, whose mother was responsible for this 
organization. Her mother. Miss Sue A. Ward, of Ken- 
tucky, married Rev. H. D. McKinnon, a law graduate 
of Winchester, Ky., who served as a pastor for fifty-one 
consecutive years, one of these pastorates being Warren, 
Ark. There a friendship was formed between the Mc- 
Kinnons and a family of Van Volkenburgs, Dutch New 
Yorkers. These families being missionary in spirit, 
Mrs. H. D. McKinnon and Miss Emma Van Volken- 
burg organized a woman's missionary society in the 
later part of 1872 or the early part of 1873. The eight 
members pledged to send fifty dollars a year to Mrs. 
J. W. Lambuth for the education of a Chinese girl. 
However, their vision went far beyond their individual 
and local responsibility. Mrs. McKinnon had a vision 
of manysuch societies organized as auxiliaries to the mis- 
sionary work of the Church. She wrote a letter to 
Bishop Haygood, then secretary of the General Board 
of Missions, outlining her plan and calling for his help 

36 Women and the Kingdem 

in working out such an organization. He answered at 
once, approving the idea and declaring that there was 
nothing like it in all of Southern Methodism. Through 
Bishop Wightman he finally secured a copy of a con- 
stitution of a small society of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. In the meantime, the little band of women in 
Warren continued to project their work, and Miss 
Volkenburg (still living in 1928) went to Pine Bluff in 
1873 and organized a society there, which was soon 
sending $400 a year to China. In a short time there 
were seven regularly organized societies, federated aux- 
iliaries, functioning in the Little Rock Conference. 
This was several years before the General Conference 
sanctioned the church-wide organization of the Woman's 
Missionary Society. "Thus," says the historian, "little 
out-of-the-way Warren, Ark., has written herself big into 
the history of organized woman's work." 

r, ,,. E- Prior to 1874, an organization of 

Franklin, Ky. > . f . 

, women, ^domg active work and enjoy- 

ing freedom of speech in public as- 
sembly, had never existed in Southern Kentucky. This 
would have been regarded as a "violent innovation upon 
womanly propriety." At that time the foreign mission 
enterprise was highly unpopular, many ministers being 
in bitter opposition. A general approval, however, was 
given to home work. The leader in all this revolutionary 
procedure in Franklin, Ky., was a modest little woman, 
Mrs. Dorinda A. Duncan, who, in 1874, organized a 
Dorinda Band. The members, twenty-five in all, pledged 
one dollar a year for five years for foreign missons. 
The organization was initiated in a great service at the 
church. The sermon, which was preached by Rev. John 
F. Tigert, was based on the story of the Syrian maid; 

Women and the Kingdom 37 

this was his first missionary sermon. It is stated on 

good authority that in the very beginning a Children's 

Band was organized, auxihary to the Dorinda Band. 

_. , . -^ The Rev. S. A. Steele wrote the 

Richmond, Va. , n • • i • • 

lollowmg concernmg the organization 

of the Woman's Missionary Society 
in Richmond, Va.: "In the summer of 1875, fifty years 
ago, I took charge of the Broad Street Church in Rich- 
mond, Va., as a supply in the pulpit, left vacant by the 
election of Dr. Granbery to a chair in Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity. At that time there were only three woman's 
missionary societies — one in New Orleans, one in Balti- 
more, and one in Nashville. I called the ladies of the 
Church together and organized the fourth society. Mrs. 
Juliana Hayes, hearing of this, came over to see about 
it. She came to my house as our guest, and she and my 
young wife and I worked out the constitution and by- 
laws of the original connectional society. At the earnest 
request of Mrs. Hayes, I went to Atlanta to the General 
Conference, in 1878, and lobbied to get the thing 
adopted." This is a bit of inside information regarding 
the first connectional organization. 

,,,-,, , It would be interesting if we could 

New Orleans, La. ^ , , , r i o • • tvt 

_ find the record of the Society in N ew 

Orleans to which Dr. Steele referred 
in recording the story of the Richmond Society as one 
in existence in 1875. The Conference historian of Louis- 
iana records a society at Rayne Memorial Church, then 
known as St. Charles Avenue Church, which was organ- 
ized April 26, 1877, and which claims to be, with the 
exception of the independent organization In Baltimore, 
the oldest missionary society in Southern Methodism. 
She states that it was founded by Mrs. J. C. Keener on 

38 Women and the Kingdom 

her return from a trip to Mexico, which she took with 
her husband, Bishop Keener. She was impressed with 
the pathetic condition of the Mexican women who knew 
not the gospel of Christ and with the wonderful oppor- 
tunity of Christian women to meet the need. Bishop 
Keener visited Mexico City soon after (1871), when our 
Church began its work in Mexico. Therefore, it may 
be that the St. Charles Avenue Church society was 
organized earlier than 1877. 

A Creative Vision 

In recounting the story of the creative forces that 
were responsible for the final authorization given to 
Southern Methodist women, nothing is of greater in- 
terest than the vision of Mrs. E. C. Dowdell, of the 
Alabama Conference, recorded in a letter written to 
Bishop Andrew. She was a pioneer in the realm of ideas. 
It was from such visions that the organization was born. 
The letter, which follows, is interesting because of the 
date (1861), and also for the clearness with which it 
reveals the effect of the Civil War on women in releasing 
their powers. 

Bishop Andrew. 

Dear Bishop: You will find a small sum to be cast into the 
missionary treasury. I should not trouble you with this, which 
I could hand over to my preacher, but the truth is, I want to 
write to you, and I send this as sort of an excuse, a small bribe 
to your patience, for I shall not promise you that this epistle 
may not lengthen out sevral pages before I conclude. A few 
evenings since, being very busily engaged sewing (what a blessing 
we can think and sew at the same time) the two thoughts that 
haunt me almost night and day — the missionary debt and the 
war — came up. First of all, how was that debt to be paid and 
the field enlarged and what were the women of the Church doing 

Women and the Kingdom 39 

and sacrificing in this cause? Then I thought of the struggle our 
country was passing through, not for freedom only, but for very 
existence, and what the women of the South were doing and 
sacrificing in this cause. When I contrasted the amount of serv- 
ice rendered in the two departments, my sorrow was stirred, 
not that my countrywomen loved their land so dearly, but that, 
apparently, it seemed the spirit of patriotism could influence 
them to do and sacrifice more for the country than the spirit 
of Christ had ever influenced them to do for his Kindgom, the 
country above all that we should love, and be true to. I asked 
myself, Is it true that we Southern women love our country and 
her cause better than we do our God and his cause? I could 
not believe it. And thus, "while I was musing, the fire burned" 
and I looked and beheld a sight that filled my soul with exultation 
and joy in the Holy Ghost. I saw vast numbers of Christian 
women of the South coming up to the help of the Lord, working 
systematically in the great missionary field, not as they do now, 
slipping in a few miserable dollars, the remnant of the sacrifice 
offered to pride and vanity, but coming laden with gifts for the 
altar, gifts, the first fruits of their self-denial and love. And 
when shall this vision be fulfTlled? When work is carved out for 
us and given to us by the fathers of the Church in her hour of 
trial. Now suppose, instead of giving the ladies of Montgomery 
three thousand bags to make in an incredibly short space of time 
and a hundred uniforms to finish in a few days, the request for 
this help had been given in general terms, just as the request is 
made for contributions to the missionary cause, how much 
would have been done? Just as much, and no more, in pro- 
portion to what they have done, as our women give to missions 
in proportion to what they ought to give and would give were 
they dtrectly made to feel part of the responsibility resting upon 
them. In the towns and cities there are Ladies' Aid Societies 
for the benefit of the soldiers and their destitute families. All 
honor to the women thus engaged! They will deny themselves 
and do grandly in this noble work. And do you suppose. Bishop, 
the women of the Church would be behind them in their devotion 
to their God and his cause if they knew how or where to begin 
work? Would they, too, not glory in sacrificing and working for 
their destitute missionary soldiers and their wives and little ones! 
I shrink from the thought of women being made conspicuous 

40 Women and the Kingdom 

save for the cause of Christ. They should come forward, not 
as leaders, not with many words, but as humble helpmeets, 
boldly taking their stand on the Lord's side, though they may 
encounter thereby the sneers of the world and of many so-called 
Christians, who have read or heard quoted portions of St. Paul's 
writing about "learning in silence," "usurping authority," etc., 
and who never have read or heard of "those women that labored 
with us in the gospel." Why is it. Bishop, the women can preside 
over large assemblies, read compositions, present flags, to say 
nothing of singing at concerts, and dancing before hundreds, and 
from all receive the plaudit of "well done," and yet, if, before 
this same multitude she is called on to plead with God for sinners, 
or feels constrained by the love of Christ in a love feast, to make 
known God's dealings with her soul, she directly feels, and keenly 
feels, that she is singled out as one who can from some peculiar 
construction of mind do these things; the greater part of the 
women of the Church being too timid, or modest, as some term 
it, to thus make themselves "so conspicuous?" Am I wrong in 
thinking that public opinion needs a thorough revolution just 

But this is a digression. What I particularly want to ask is, 
if you do not think it would be productive of some good to asso- 
ciate with the Conference Missionary Society a Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society, to meet at the same time and place, the officers 
to be appointed by yourselves. Many of the wives of our minis- 
ters would, no doubt, gladly enter upon this work. Some will 
say they already have enough to do; I know that, and yet I 
believe that the missionary spirit thus diffused by them would be 
returned in such a way as to relieve them of many of the burdens 
they now endure. The field, of all others, for the care and labor 
of Southern women is the mission to the colored people, because 
in the nineteenth century, if there is a people to whom they 
should be grateful, it is these people. They nurse her and her 
children, in sickness and health, relieve her of the hard toil that 
makes a drudge of the New England wife, and withal she daily 
learns lessons, in her association with them, of patience, thought- 
fulness, forbearance, and charity. With the offending and un- 
ruly, "Mistress" ever stands in the relation of mediator between 
them and their sterner master. And thus silently in many a 
Southern household, the better portions of our nature are re- 

Women and the Kingdom 41 

ceiving daily culture. O, that I may live to see the day when 
this large field may be given to the care of Southern Methodist 
women, and they be made strong in the Lord to do this noble 
work. Btshop, give us work; we can do it, not at once, perhaps, 
but let us begin. If we fail, we can try again, and, if proved at 
last that it had been as well to have worked on in the old way, 
nobody will have been injured in this effort to do good. Believe 
me, many a Methodist woman spends twice, if not three times 
as much during the year for her bonnets as she puts into the 
missionary treasury. You scarcely credit this. Ask Mrs. Andrew 
if she does not know good Methodist ladies who buy, say, four 
hats (moderate number) a year, averaging nine dollars apiece 
and then slip into the hat five dollars when the preacher takes up 
the annual collection? This ought not to be. Can you devise 
no way to bring about a different state of things? It may be a 
a little thing, Bishop, but if our Methodist sisters of the Con- 
federate States would only give to the Lord the tenth of their 
pin money, it alone would gladden many a missionary's home, 
and now, when there are no new pins to buy, is the time for them 
to try what can be accomplished by these littles. Would our 
husbands and brothers object? If they but knew what a saving 
to their pockets it would prove to have their wives members of 
the Woman's Missionary Society, how earnestly would they 
recommend the movement. These gentlemen, when it comes to 
giving to the country, what faith they have! Do they give a 
tenth? A tenth, indeed, they give the half, and stand ready to 
give all, if need be. True they are promised a return, with 
interest, if in the struggle there are any left alive; but what 
does the Lord of all the earth say to the building up of his King- 
dom? Everything needful for this life for interest; and life 
eternal in the end for principal. The bond given is in as plain 
language as this: "Honor the Lord with thy substance, so shall 
thy barns be filled with plenty and thy presses burst with new 
wine." Again Paul says, " he that soweth bountifully, shall 
reap bountifully," and "ye always having all sufficiency in all 
things, may abound to every good work." But as touching 
all this, "it is superfluous for me to write to you." You know 
the Scriptures are full of promises and blessings and rich rewards 
to those who give to the poor, or lend to the Lord, and thus lay 
up treasures in Heaven, treasures of real estate, indeed, houses 

42 Women and the Kingdom 

not made with hands, in which we are to enjoy eternal life. 
Thanks be unto God for his unspeakable gifts! 

I did not intend to write all this and tire your dear old eyes, 
and exhaust your patience; but I have a somewhat troublesome 
habit of writing long letters. Once I heard that blessed old man, 
Dr. Lovick Pierce, tell the Lord in a prayer that he never knew 
how to stop praying, he had so much to pray for. It is even so 
with me, when I get to writing on this subject my heart is so full, 
I never know when to stop. My consolation is that, however 
weary you may get, you will not know on whom to visit your 
wrath. Forgive me, pray for me, and put my sisters and myself 
to work. Your Friend and the Friend of Missions. 

Two Creative Gifts 

Among the forces which made possible the organization 
of 1878, two outstanding creative gifts should be men- 
tioned — gifts that inspired Southern Methodist woman- 
hood. One is a gift of money, the other a gift of life. 

Mrs. D. H. McGavock, of Nashville, Tenn., unpinning 
the diamonds that had held her wedding veil, secretly 
gave them to Mrs. J. W. Lambuth that a building might 
be provided for her Girls' School in China. The sale of 
the diamonds brought $1,000 and the building erected 
carried the name Clop ton in honor of Mrs. McGavock's 
mother, in whose memory the jewels were given. 

Greater, however, than jewels is life. In 1877 Miss 
Lochie Rankin, of Milan, Tenn., a teacher in New Hope 
Indian Boarding School, hearing of the appeal for single 
women to go out to help Mrs. J. W. Lambuth in her 
school, offered her life. Immediately the scattered 
societies throughout Southern Methodism united, in 
raising a fund, and when the General Conference met 
in 1878 there was enough money pledged to send Miss 
Rankin, their first missionary, to China. How could 
the General Conference withstand such an appeal! 



Creating a Connectional Organization for 
Service Abroad 

It was no insignificant task for the women of 1878, 
inexperienced as they were in the affairs of the Church, 
to create a connectional organization for service in 
foreign fields. It was, perhaps, providential, that they 
failed to secure authorization when they presented their 
first memorial to the General Conference of 1874. It 
was referred to the Committee on Missions and never 
heard from again. The years between 1874-78 were 
years of growth in courage and a time when a connection 
between the societies was being made; those who were 
fired with missionary zeal were finding one another. 
Mrs. Dowdell, Mrs. McGavock, Mrs. Hayes, and Mrs. 
Kelley were in frequent correspondence, giving one 
another encouragement and making comparison of vari- 
ous suggested plans for a general organization. The 
Church press, especially the Nashville Advocate, was used 
in discussing the question: "Has the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, a Work for Women to Do?" Certain 
leaders in the Church gradually appeared who were 
willing and able to support the women in their under- 
taking. They had a great friend in Dr. D. C. Kelley, 
who had been in China and had become the assistant 
secretary of the Board of Missions. A number of the 
pioneer leaders among the women went to the General 


44 Women and the Kingdom 

Conference in Atlanta in 1878 and, with the help of their 
sympathizers, succeeded in getting the memorial passed 
giving them authorization for a general woman's organi- 
zation. Thisoccured on May 23 at 10 a.m. The session 
was being held in First Church. 

There followed immediately, in Atlanta, the first con- 
nectional convention of women, when fifty names were 
enrolled as members. The officers and twenty-three 
managers were appointed by the College of Bishops. 
Mrs. Juliana Hayes, of Baltimore, became president, 
Mrs. D. H. McGavock, of Nashville, Tenn., correspond- 
ing secretary, and Mrs. James Whitworth, also of Nash- 
ville, treasurer. The organization was called the Gener- 
al Executive Association. In 1882, it was changed to 
Woman's Board of Missions and, in 1892, to Womans 
Board of Foreign Missions. Among the other officers 
who served the Board of Foreign Missions were: Mrs. 
W. D. Wightman and Miss M. L. Gibson, presidents, 
and Mrs. S. C. Trueheart and Mrs. J. B. Cobb corres- 
ponding secretaries. 

"Can we sense the feelings of this vibrant, buoyant 
company as they planned to sweep across the Church 
gathering into the new organization, composed of women 
from every walk of life, those who were of like mind? 
Among them were gentle ladies of the old school, great 
hearted, motherly women, patient toiling women, keen 
women, fervent, faithful women, all in a crusade for the 
elevation of women and children around the world." ^ 
They must have had unstinted faith, infinite patience, 
piercing visions, and a wealth of creative ability, or they 
never could have undertaken such a task and carried it 
out so successfully. 

^Lipscomb, Mrs. B. W., Annual Report to the Council, 1928. 

Women and the Kingdom 45 

The Development of Conference Societies 

„. ^ , Within a year following this 

Pioneer Conference ^ i r- r i • 

_.. Lreneral Conference authoriza- 

tion , fifteen Conference Societies, 
auxiliary to the General Executive Association, had been 
organized. There is no greater evidence of the readiness 
of the women of the Church for a forward step than is 
manifest in this rapid movement. The fifteen societies 
that were organized within one year were: Missouri 
(September 10, 1878), Kentucky (October 21, 1878), 
Holston (October 23, 1878), Tennessee (October, 1878), 
North Georgia (November 30, 1878), North Carolina 
(December 11, 1878), Little Rock (December 2, 1878), 
South Carolina (December 16, 1878), Mississippi (De- 
cember 22, 1878) Alabama (December, 1878), Louisville 
(February 23, 1879), Louisiana (1879), Baltimore (March 
10, 1879), Memphis (April 19, 1879), North Mississippi 
(April 24, 1879). Thirteen of these Conferences were 
represented at the first meeting of the General Executive 
Association in Louisville, Ky., May 17, 1879; the two not 
represented were South Carolina and Louisiana. The 
second annual meeting was held in Nashville, Tenn., and 
the number of conference organizations had increased 
from fifteen to twenty-two. The new conferences added 
within the year 1879, were Southwest Missouri, St. Louis, 
Western Virginia, and North Alabama. 

, ,. There were most interesting incidents 

Mrs. Juliana i • , , .... 

connected with the organization oi these 
Hayes . . . ° 

conference societies, it seems incon- 
ceivable that Mrs. Juliana Hayes could have attended 
so many of the organization meetings. St. Louis, West- 
ern Virginia, Northwest Texas, Texas, Central Texas, 
Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Missouri, North Ar- 

46 Women and the Kingdom 

kansas, and North Georgia all record the fact that she 
was present and helped with the organization. The 
Texas itinerary seems to have been especially difficult 
for her, and Dr. D. C. Kelley completed it in her stead. 
We catch the atmosphere of these occasions from a letter 
that Mrs. Hayes wrote to the Nashville Advocate regard- 
ing the Alabama Conference meeting: "We esteemed it 
a high privilege to be present and listened with delight 
to the able and appropriate welcomes, which were fol- 
lowed by a most impressive address by the honored and 
gifted President, after which the Corresponding Secre- 
tary set fourth in her own graphic and earnest way the 
history, working, and progress of the Society. In 
inemory we love to linger at Auburn and gladly live over 
the affectionate greetings, tender acts of love, sweet and 
blessed communion, where heart met heart and will re- 
main forever united, linked together by the golden chain 
of the Saviour's love." 

The historian of the Florida Conference gives this in- 
teresting incident occuring at the organization meeting: 
"When Mrs. Hayes was to make her address, the gentle- 
man who had been asked to introduce her refused to do 
so because he thought women should be seen and not 
heard in public. However, after hearing her speak, he 
was so pleased with her and her message that he changed 
his opinion and became a strong advocate of women and 
their work." 

We have the record of another address made by Mrs. 
Hayes. In it she expressed gratitude in these words: 
"In our own appropriate sphere — and we would not 
enlarge that sphere or step beyond if we could — we are 
enabled to work in a tangible way for the immediate 
benefit of our sex. We can contribute by our means, 


Women and the Kingdom 47 

sympathy, and prayers and thus have the precious com- 
fort of knowing that we are doing something fine and 
deep toward the uplifting of heathen womanhood from 
that deep, dark degradation to which ignorance, sin and 
superstition have consigned her." Again she said: "We 
regret that any of our honored and beloved pastors 
should ever seem to be indifferent to this grand depart- 
ment of Christian work and achievement." 

The record of the Norch Arkansas Conference states: 
"Mrs. Hayes conducted a map exercise on China, read 
a letter from Miss Rankin, and exhibited Chinese shoes. 
What more could she have done!" There is another 
story of Mrs. Hayes told by the historian of North 
Georgia: "The annual meeting of the Conference Society 
was being held at Barnesville, in 1881. Mrs. Hayes was 
there. During the meeting she arose and said: 'Ladies, 
I notice that no gentlemen have honored this session 
with their presence. I can but express my regret that 
this is so.' Whereupon, a member of the Barnesville 
auxiliary arose and said with great dignity: ' Mrs. Hayes, 
there are no gentlemen here because we invited them to 
stay away. We thought it might embarrass the ladies to 
speak in the presence of the gentlemen.' Mrs. Hayes 
replied: 'They might have attended, for they could have 
learned some things no doubt.'" 
TT I f I f Not only do the records make clear 

, „. , the marvelous helpfulness of Mrs. Juli- 

t he Bishops _.. ... , , 

ana Hayes m these pioneer days, but 

they tell the story of the friendly help given by bishops 

and other church officials. The fact that the early 

meetings were usually held at the sessions of the annual 

conferences made this possible. Again and again the 

women record their thankfulness for help rendered by 

48 Women and the Kingdom 

Bishops Wightman, Pierce, McTyeire, Wilson, Gran- 

bery and Hendrix. 

_.™ , . It had been ruled that no conference 

Difficulties . . . . . , .. , 

_ society could be organized it there were 

Overcome . . ... . 

not at least three auxiliaries to constitute 

it. There are many instances on record where two of 
the three necessary auxiliaries were organized at the seat 
of the annual conference where the conference society 
was formed, the members being composed of women 
present from various communities. They went home 
pledged to carry forward the plans in their local aux- 
iliaries. The West Texas Conference met at Sequin, in 
1882, for the purpose of organization. (The .Sequin 
Society was the only one in the Conference). The 
women from Gonzales and San Antonio were organized, 
making it possible to form the Conference Society at 
that time, on Saturday night, October 21, at 11 p.m. 
We can sense the eagerness of this small group of women 
who resorted to such measures to accomplish their goal. 
To-day we are hardly able to realize how revolution- 
ary it was in 1878 for women to hold public meetings. 
It is said that the meeting of the South Carolina Con- 
ference Woman's Missionary Society, held April 2, 1880, 
was the first public meeting of women ever held in that 
State, presided over by a woman. Mrs. Maria Davies 
Wightman was the presiding officer. It was described 
as a "wonderful meeting"; it was, indeed, epoch making. 

Creating a Connectional Organization for 
Service at Home 

,,. , ^, J The two pioneer missionary 

Miss Laura Hay good . . . ^ , . i xt i 

^ ^, ,,. . societies in Baltimore and JN ash- 

ana Home Missions ... . , , ,, 

ville embraced home as well as 

Women and the Kingdom 49 

foreign missions. They were both known as the Wom- 
an's Bible Mission for Work at Home and Abroad, 
From 1878 to 1886, however, the women were largely 
absorbed in the organization and development of the 
foreign mission work. There were but few churches 
that did not have some form of "Ladies Aid" working 
for the local church and parsonage. At that time this 
seemed adequate. It is very significant that, in 1882, 
Miss Laura A. Haygood, who was later to render dis- 
tinguished service in China, worked out in Atlanta, Ga., 
what seems to be an almost perfect plan for city mission 
work. The society formed was called the Trinity Home 
Mission; Miss Haygood was president. The object of 
the Society was: "The physical, mental, and moral 
elevation of the poor of the city, and especially of our 
own Church and congregation." The dues were five 
cents a week, and the entire society was divided into 
ten committees for work along various lines. The con- 
stitution and by-laws are still in existence, bearing the 
date April 15, 1882. By 1883 the Trinity Mission had 
established an industrial school, and a home for depend- 
ent and helpless women. 

The Atlanta Constitution published this significant re- 
port of a farewell address, delivered at the time of Miss 
Haygood's departure for China: "We commemorate 
this evening a great wedding, the marriage of Miss Laura 
Haygood to the missionary cause. Shall we miss her? 
Ask the parched earth if it misses refreshing showers. 
Shall we miss her? Ask hundreds of poor children and 
helpless women in our city whose tears she has dried and 
whose bodies she has clothed and fed. Shall we miss 
her? Ask the poor who have been led to her Saviour and 
have been made heirs of Heaven. Shall we miss her? 

50 Women and the Kingdom 

Ask every Church in this city that needs her wise coun- 
sel and strong faith and the inspiration of her overflow- 
ing love to Jesus." Miss Laura Haygood was indeed a 
pioneer home missionary. 

^ ,. r .t. There came a time, however, when a 

Call of the . . .' . , , r 

^ great enlargement of vision was needed for 

the home field. It was in connection with 

the opening of Churches in the great territory of the 

West. Bishop R. K. Hargrove was especially active in 

this field and often faced the fact that there was no way 

of adequately housing the preachers, whom he desired 

to appoint. 

. r J A woman of vision was ready for this hour of 

A Leader . . , . ^ . 

r, . need in Home Missions, Miss Lucinda B. 


Helm, of Elizabethtown, Ky., the daughter 

of an ex-governor of the State. The Board of Church Ex- 
tension had been organized, in 1 882, with Dr. David Mor- 
ton as Secretary. Bishop Hargrove placed the needs of 
the West before that Board. Dr. Morton turned to the 
women foraid. Miss LucindaB.Helm was asked to write 
a constitution and by-laws for a woman's department 
of church extension. This organization was to help [in 
supplying parsonages. Miss Helm felt definitely called 
to this work. She wrote: "I felt as if some propelling 
power behind me entered my soul, and was wooing me 
with an irresistible force to throw my life into this work 
of helping to redeem my country from the enemy of 
souls and to establish the Kingdom of the Lord." 

The result of this preliminary work was 
„ . . an action of the General Conference, in 

1886, authorizing the Board of Church Ex- 
tension to organize the Woman's Department of Church 
Extension, the object of which should be to collect 

Women and the Kingdom 51 

funds for parsonages. All funds so collected were to be 
subject to the direction of the local boards of church 
extension for the object specified. These plans afforded 
a wonderful opportunity for the womanly instinct to 
manifest itself in caring for the physical comfort of 
honored pastors. 

When the Board of Church Extension met, following 
the action of the General Conference on May 21, 1886, 
Miss Lucinda B. Helm was elected General Secretary of 
the Woman's Department of Church Extension. Miss 
Helm began her work at once, traveling over the Church 
and organizing local and conference woman's depart- 
ments. In two years two hundred and fourteen aux- 
iliary societies were organized. 

„ , . , Miss Helm, however, was never sat- 

Enlar sing for . ^ , , , . . . ' , „ . 

„ -,. . isned that the activities of the Society 
Home Missions ,,,,,.., , 

should be limited to parsonage work. 

As she went about the Church, she saw the need of other 
forms of home mission service and found that the women 
were eager for an extension of their activities. The re- 
sult was a memorial to the General Conference, in 1890, 
asking for an enlargement of the powers of the Society. 
There was decided opposition, coming especially from 
those who felt that the foreign work would be injured 
by this enlarged activity; there were others who felt it 
premature. The General Conference was convinced by 
the arguments given in its favor and enlarged the scope 
of the Society to include home missions; the name was 
changed to the Woman's Parsonage and Home Mission 
Society. At this time a Central Committee was author- 
ized which should share the responsibility with Miss 
Helm. Mrs. E. E. Wiley was made president, Miss 
Lucinda B. Helm, general secretary, and Mrs. George 

52 Women and the Kingdom 

Kendrick, treasurer. The Committee was composed of 
the officers and eight managers. It met regularly in the 
home of Mrs. George Kendrick, of Louisville, Ky. When 
the Central Committee met for its first annual meeting, 
in 1891, there were four hundred and seventy-two aux- 
iliaries. In 1896, Miss Belle Harris Bennett became 
president of the Central Committee. Two years later, 
there came another change in the organization; the 
name became the Woman's Home Mission Society, and, 
to take the place of the Central Committee, a Woman's 
Board of Home Missions was constituted. Mrs. R. K. 
Hargrove became the corresponding secretary and Miss 
Bennett remained president. Miss Bennett held this 
office from 1896 to 1910, when the Woman's Board of 
Foreign Missions and the Woman's Board of Home Mis- 
sions were united. In 1902 Mrs. R. W. MacDonell suc- 
ceeded Mrs. R. K. Hargrove as secretary, and to her is 
due the honor of laying the foundation of city mission 
work in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

-., , Evidently the experience of the worn- 

Many Helpers . , -^^ . ^ , , , 

en m the foreign work made them 

much less timid in pressing forward. So rapid was 
the development of conference societies that in the 
decade (1886-1896) twenty had been organized, a large 
majority in the first five years. There were many capable 
persons eager to help. We find Bishop E. R. Hendrix, in 
1885, organizing the women at Stateler's Clmpel, Willow 
Creek, Mont., into a society to aid in building homes for 
preachers. In 1890, at Lebanon, Oregon, he appointed 
women to aid in the development of the Woman's Par- 
sonage and Home Mission Society, and in the South 
Carolina Conference he appointed an organizer for this 
special work. Miss Lucinda B. Helm was as active as 

Women and the Kingdom 53 

Mrs. Juliana Hayes had been. She appointed organizers 
wherever she went. Mrs. R. K. Hargrove accompanied 
Bishop Hargrove on his itineraries and organized many 
societies. According to the records Mrs. E. E. Wiley 
itinerated in the Carolinas. Dr. David Morton also 
assisted in the work of organization. Undoubtedly, the 
society was popular with the authorities, and the Church 
was ready for this special movement. The Kentucky 
Conference historian states: "The efficiency of the wom- 
en and the results of their efforts in China, Brazil, and on 
the Mexican border, had been demonstrated by this 
time to such an extent that there began to be suggestions, 
both among laity and clergy, not exactly that the talents 
of the women were being misplaced, but that their 
services would be very acceptable as a sort of accompani- 
ment of the work at home. 

_, ^ , There was opposition from the women 

Obstacles ,. , . . ^t^ . . . 

^ . enlisted m the foreign missionary enter- 
Encountered . , . , , , ,, • r 

prise, who leared that the collections tor 

foreign missions would be reduced, and the interests of 
the women divided. The Ladies Aids also objected, not 
wanting the money collected by them to go to connec- 
tional work. In the beginning, connectional member- 
ships as well as local memberships were established to 
meet this difficulty. The records of the Kentucky Con- 
ference, in 1889, indicate that need was felt for Biblical 
indorsement. It says that Dr. John R. Deering preached 
an impressive and appropriate sermon from 2 Kings 4: 
9, 10, deducing therefrom conclusive evidence of the pre- 
eminent propriety of securing the interest of women in 
providing places of abode for pastors. There was out- 
spoken opposition and even disdain in some places, as 
shown by the following incident : There had been a home 

54 Women and the Kingdom 

mission auxiliary organized at Hannibal, Mo. The Con- 
ference Secretary, not hearing from the society, wrote 
the pastor regarding it. The reply came: ''Dear Sister: 
The Parsonage and Home Mission Society of this 
Church was always a delicate child and finally died from 
over-organization of the Mother Church. I can only say 
'Peace be to its ashes.'" It is interesting to note that 
in many conferences for a number of years the Home 
Mission Conference Society and the Foreign Conference 
Society met at the same time and place, the women of 
the two societies thus keeping in close contact. 

Enlisting the Childern and Young People 
FOR Service 

„ , The story of the organization for service 

Jbarly . 

„ . ^. would not be complete without an account 


of the enlistment of young people and chil- 
dren. The organization of children for missionary serv- 
ice was the result of the vision of individual leaders; 
there was at first no authorization for this work. The 
earliest records tell of young people and children organ- 
ized in the same society. The names given to these early 
societies are interesting: Morning Stars, Pearl Gatherers, 
Helping Hands, Little Blossoms, Light Bearers, Bright 
Jewels, Busy Bees, Buds of Faith, Golden Threads, 
Evergreens, Hearts and Hands. The first society of 
which we find a record was known as the Busy Bees. 
It was organized at Market Street Church, Greensboro, 
N. C, in 1870, by Mrs. Frances Webb Bumpass. In 
1875, a society was organized in the North Carolina 
Conference by an invalid, Mrs. J. O. Martin. She re- 
ceived her inspiration through letters from Dr. A. P. 
Parker. As early as 1877, we find a society in Fayette, 

Women and the Kingdom 55 

Mo., and one in Broadway Church, Louisville, with 
Miss Martha Watts in charge. Mrs. V. E. Manget, the 
first delegate from the North Georgia Conference to the 
General Executive Association, held in Louisville, in 
1879, organized a children's society in Louisville, before 
her return; she claims in her report, that this was the 
first Juvenile Missionary Society ever organized. It 
was called The Eliza Manget Light Bearers. 

In 1879, Kansas City, St. Louis, Louisville, Knoxvllle, 
and Auburn, Ala., had organized societies. There may 
have been many others. In the second annual report 
of the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, 1879-80, 
thirteen juvenile organizations were reported with three 
hundred members. There is an interesting record about 
the regulations of the Alabama Societies: "Infants and 
children too small to take part in the exercises may be 
silent members, their names being placed on record." 
Surely these were the days when self-expression was not 
the vogue! One wonders how silent those early mem- 
bers were. North Georgia claims the credit for initiating 
a cradle roll in Oxford, September, 1890. The stated 
purpose of these early children societies is: "To aid the 
operation of the Woman's Missionary Society and to 
increase missionary intelligence.^' 

In the early history of children's work the Rosebuds, 
of Virginia, and the Bright Jewels, of North Carolina, 
were outstanding. In 1882 Mrs. W. A, Black organized 
the Bright Jewels, and opened a column in the Raleigh 
Christian Advocate for children's correspondence. In 
1892, ten years later, there were eighty-four bands of 
Bright Jewels in the conference. Mrs. Black then began 
the publication of a conference paper for the children 
under the name Bright Jewels. After working with the 

56 Women and the Kingdom 

children eleven years Mrs. Black passed. away and was 
succeeded by Mrs. L. M. Hendron, who for eighteen 
years had charge of the North Carolina Conference 
work for children. These bands of North Carolina chil- 
dren raised the money to build the Mary Black Hospital 
in Soochow, China; this name is perpetuated in a mis- 
sionary nurses home in the Union Christian Medical 
College in Shanghai, China. 

^^ . . , In 1880, at the meeting of the 

A Constitution for t, , r i- • tvt- • 

the Children ^^^^^ ""[ foreign Missions, a 

constitution was provided which 
embraced the work of both young people and children. 
There was no provision for lady managers; this came 
later, in 1900. In 1907, the Board of Home Missions 
and in 1910 the Board of Foreign Missions granted 
separate constitutions for children and young people. 
This was a distinct advance. In the beginning the 
children's and young people's work was under the care 
of the General Secretary, but in 1910, when the Boards 
united, a vice-president of the Woman's Missionary 
Council was placed in charge of children's work. Mrs. 
F. G. Ratcliffe, of St. Louis, was the first to hold that 
office. In 1913 she was succeeded by Mrs. W. A. Al- 
bright, who was in turn succeeded by Miss Althea Jones. 
In 1926, Miss Jones became a full-time secretary of the 
Board of Missions, in charge of Children's Work. The 
General Conference, of 1926, took action providing for 
a joint missionary program for children of junior age. 
The result of this action was the organization of the 
Epworth Junior Society, operating under a joint con- 
stitution and under the joint supervision of the Epworth 
League Board and the Woman's Missionary Council. 
The rapid growth and significance of the children's mis- 

Women and the Kingdom 57 

sionary work is indicated by the figures in the report of 
1927; there were 5,155 organizations and 99,321 mem- 
bers; the collections amounted to $52,139.66. 

The early history of the Young 
ion er oung People's Society is veiled, because the 
People s ^ r , 1 ., , , 

Societies reports oi the children and young 

people were made together. Yet there 
were distinctly Young People's Societies even in the 
pioneer days. In 1876, there was a Young Ladies 
Society in Chestnut Street Church, Louisville, sending 
money regularly to the Lambuths in China. In 1881, 
at Monumental Street Church, Savannah, Rev. G. 
W. MacDonell, father-in-law of Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, 
organized a young people's society, from which Rev. 
and Mrs. R. W. MacDonell and Miss Hattie G. Carson 
went to Mexico; Miss Carson later transferred to Cuba. 
.. From 1894 to 1910, the young people 

Youne Peotole °^ ^^^ Church were cultivated by both 
the home and foreign mission boards. 
In some churches there existed both home and foreign 
young people's societies. After 1910, the work for the 
young people was placed in charge of a vice-president 
of the Council. Mrs. J. E. Grubbs was the first to hold 
the offtce. Later this work was placed under a superin- 
tendent and continues to be cared for in this way. In 
1926 Miss Julia Lake Stevens, the Council superintend- 
ent, was made also a secretary of the Board of Missions. 
The significance of Young People's Work is seen by the 
statistics. In 1927, there were 1,623 organizations and 
31,618 members who paid into the treasury of the 
Woman's Missionary Council $53,344.54, The young 
people and children, at the close of the fifty years, are 

58 Women and the Kingdom 

giving more than $100,000 to carry on missions at home 
and abroad. 

In all this work of organization the women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, were pioneers. 
The organization methods sprang out of concrete needs. 
Each forward step meant that some one must pay the 
price of leadership. There was much creative thinking, 
and courage never failed, because the goal of taking 
Christ to the world's womanhood had power to lure the 
women on to higher endeavors in his name. 

Becoming a Part of the General Board of Missions 

The year 1910 was epoch-making in the develop- 
ment of woman's missionary work. The action of the 
General Conference united the Woman's Board of Home 
Missions and the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, 
creating the Woman's Missionary Council, and for the 
first time in the history of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, gave women membership on the General 
Board of Missions and gave authority for the election 
of women secretaries and a woman assistant treasurer 
of the Board of Missions. This legislation provided for 
thirty managers, ten of whom should be women, nomi- 
nated by the Woman's Missionary Council, and four 
women secretaries, one in the Department of Foreign 
Missions, one in the Department of Home Missions, one 
Educational, and one Editorial Secretary. It also pro- 
vided that there should be an assistant Treasurer of the 
Board who should be a woman. 

The first ten women managers of the Board of Mis- 
sions were: Miss Belle H. Bennett, Miss Maria Layng 
Gibson, Mrs. L. P. Smith, Mrs. W. F. Barnum, Mrs. 
Luke G. Johnson, Mrs. Hume R. Steele, Mrs. E. B. 

Women and the Kingdom 59 

Chappell, Miss Daisy Davies, Miss Mary Moore, and 
Mrs. Lee Britt. The first secretaries were: Mrs. R. W. 
MacDonell for the Department of Home Missions, Mrs. 
J. B. Cobb for the Department of Foreign Missions, 
Miss Mabel Head, for educational work, and Mrs. A. 
L. Marshall for editorial work. The first woman treas- 
urer of the Board was Mrs. F. H. E. Ross. She was suc- 
ceeded in 1925 by Mrs. Ina Davis Fulton. For three 
wonderful quadrenniums, 1910-22, Miss Belle H. Ben- 
nett, a peerless leader, guided the affairs of the Woman's 
Missionary Council. As the successor of the woman's 
boards this new body assumed all their administrative 
and promotional powers. These were years of rapid 
advance along all lines. 

In 1922, another step was taken by the General Con- 
ference, which was far more revolutionary than that of 
1910, in its effect upon woman's work. There had been 
two departments in the Board, now, however three 
departments were created: the Department of Foreign 
Missions, the Department of Home Missions, and the 
Woman's Department. The Woman's Department, 
with home and foreign sections, was composed of all the 
women members of the Board of Missions and the 
women secretaries, four of whom were elected by the 
General Conference. To this Department, of which 
Mrs. Luke G. Johnson was made chairman, was com- 
mitted the administration of Woman's Work. The 
Foreign Section administered the work for women and 
children in foreign lands, and the Section of Home 
Work administered the work of women and children in 
the United States, By this action, the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council became a promotional body instead of 
having both administrative and promotional functions, 

60 Women and the Kingdom 

as formerly. This was a very radical change. In 1922, 
on the death of Miss Belle H. Bennett, Mrs. F. F. 
Stephens, became the president of the Council. The 
first and only women secretaries elected by the General 
Conference were: Miss Esther Case and Miss Mabel K. 
Howell for the foreign work, and Mrs. J. W. Downs and 
Mrs. J. H. McCoy for home work. 

There was a third change which carried still further 
the incorporation of the work of women into the Board 
of Missions. 1 1 came at the General Conference of 1926. 
The Board of Missions was again reorganized, this time 
with departments constituted in an entirely different 
way; the Department of Foreign Work, the Department 
of Home Work, and the Department of Education and 
Promotion; each of these was provided with two sec- 
retaries, one for General Work and one for Woman's 
Work, with assistant secretaries in each department as 
needed. The department secretaries were no longer to 
be chosen by the General Conference, but by the Board 
of Missions. A general secretary, chosen by the General 
Conference under whose direction all secretaries of the 
Board were to carry on their work, was provided. The 
constitution guaranteed a membership of thirteen wom- 
en on the Board, these to be chosen from women nomi- 
nated by the Conference Woman's Missionary Societies. 
This legislation did away with the Department oi 
Woman's Work, but the most radical change was in the 
work of promotion ; this for the first time became a func- 
tion of the Board of Missions. Under this new constitu- 
tion the Woman's Missionary Council still retained 
power to recommend all estimates for Woman's Work, 
and to make recommendations to the Board of Missions 
concerning that work. A separate treasury for all the 

Women and the Kingdom 61 

funds raised by the women was to be maintained, these 
funds to be used only for the support of Woman's Work. 
This is the complete story of the evolutionary process 
through which organized woman's work has passed. 
Beginning in 1878 with no experience, the women have 
so developed in ability and work that at the close of the 
first half century they have been given an important 
place in the organized missionary program of the entire 

Interesting Experiences by the Way 

No Society There is no characteristic of the pioneer 
to Join women more evident than their enthuiasm 

for the cause they had espoused. "Woman's Work for 
Woman " was for them a sacred trust. They were eager 
to become members of societies, and often when a local 
society was not available, they sought to join societies at 
a distance. It is told of Mrs, S. Philpott, later President 
Emeritus of the Texas Conference, that hearing of the 
missionary interest of Mrs. McGavock, she longed to 
get in touch with her. A letter addressed to Mrs. Mc- 
Gavock was returned from the Dead Letter Office. She 
almost despaired of becoming a member of a society. 
Finally, hearing of a society at Abingdon, Va., she en- 
rolled, paying her dues regularly. 

In the Mississippi Conference, Mrs. J. F. Evans, wife 
of the pastor, exerted all her effort to interest other 
women in forming a society in her Church, but all in 
vain. Mrs. Evans would not be daunted. The monthly 
meeting of the society was regularly announced from 
the pulpit by her husband. Promptly, at the appointed 
time, Mrs. Evans would go into the parsonage parlor 
with the family Bible, her hymn book, and purse and 

62 Women and the Kingdom 

hold the monthly meeting by herself, sending regularly 

her report and dues to the conference society. 

Mrs. G. B. Hester, of East Oklahoma, member of St. 

Paul's Church, Muskogee, immediately upon her return 

from the Atlanta General Conference in 1878, organized 

at Boggy Depot, her home community, a one-woman 

society, keeping all the departments active and reporting 

the same year after year. Mrs. Hester has attended 

every annual meeting of the Board of Foreign Missions, 

the Woman's Board of Home Missions, and the 

Woman's Missionary Council. 

_. _ . In the early days there was little 

The Day of ,. . , , . . . , . 

o .. fT,t^j hterature to guide the societies in their 

Small Things ^ 

monthly programs. 1 here was a society 

in the North Carolina Conference which assumed the 
responsibility of darning the socks of their bachelor 
pastors ; this work was a legitimate part of their monthly 
meetings. Another society, not knowing how to use the 
time, decided that the members should bring their Sun- 
day school literature and study their lessons together. 
These women thought that they could not stay away 
from a monthly meeting. There is no more thrilling 
story of faithfulness than that of the pioneer women of 
the Northwest. They went into the homes of the early 
settlers, the tepees of the red man, and the camp of 
the gold digger carrying the message of salvation. 

The women often faced great difficulty in holding 
their meetings. One is amazed, in reading the early 
records, at the number of times the members came long 
distances to the churches only to find them closed and 
no keys available. There are many records which tell 
of faithful members holding their monthly missionary 
meetings on the church steps. Missionary responsi- 

Women and the Kingdom 63 

bility was too serious a business to be lightly set aside. 
The Society in Tarboro, N. C, passed a motion provid- 
ing that no subject except one bearing upon missionary 
matters should be introduced during the time devoted 
to the meeting of the Society. The motion was carried 
with an amendment providing for a fine of ten cents for 
any violation of this regulation. This was done in all 

The women, in the very beginning, held high ideals. 
The effort made to conduct their meetings in a parlia- 
mentary way would have been amusing except for the 
earnestness and enthusiasm with which they were under- 
taking this work. They did not despise the day of 
small things, and to this fact much of their marvelous 
success is due. 
_,. ... . The timidity of the women is every- 

^ .^. where evident in the early records. They 

Opposition , , . ^ ,. , . 

were extremly sensitive regarding their 

new duties. The North Georgia women love to tell the 
story of one very outstanding member of their Con- 
ference who, in those early days, was elected as district 
secretary, the first office she had ever held. She knew 
it was her duty to attend the annual District Conference 
and make a report. She boarded the train and went to 
the place of meeting. There was no one at the station 
to meet her. She became panicked with fear and took 
the next train back home, without ever having been to 
the meeting. This experience was a source of deep hu- 
miliation to her, but because of it she arose to greater 
trust in her Heavenly Father and was able to assume 
greater and greater responsibility. 

The conference historian of Alabama writes: "These 
women accepted the obligations placed upon them by 

64 Women and the Kingdom 

the leaders of the Church without hesitation, though 
tremblingly alive to their want of experience and knowl- 
edge of the essential requirements for such important 
work. Prayerfully and hopefully, these enthusiastic 
women began their task, counting upon the ready co- 
operation of the ministry, but this hope was not realized. 
They received from may quarters outspoken opposition, 
faint response from others, and icy silence from still 
others. A few noble souls gave hearty response." 

The timidity of the women was at no time more 
in evidence than at the election of ofihcers. A Texas 
historian writes: "Noting the excessive timidity of the 
duly authorized delegates, the brethren graciously con- 
sented to lend their assistance by frequently nominating 
the officers." 

Another conference historian says that it is amusing 

as well as interesting to hear some of the pioneers 

laughingly tell of the antagonism of one of the bishops 

who, in the early days, objected to every form of 

"woman's rights." There was also opposition from 

many pastors, who honestly feared the results of so 

great an innovation. 

, , ^ . ^ , It was perhaps the timidity of the wom- 

Meeting at i i i • / 

^f^ A , en and the apprehensions of the men that 

„ , led the conference societies to holding 

their annual meetings in connection with 

the Annual Conference session as an "anniversary." 

Evidently the women made their reports too long and 

sought to collect money for their beloved enterprise. 

The North Georgia records contain the following action: 

"As our brethren have said so much about our long 

reports and the collections we take for our society at 

their Annual Conference and district meetings, be it 

Women and the Kingdom 65 

resolved that no report be sent by us to any meeting of 
the brethren except a short statistical report and that 
no collection be taken on our behalf at their meetings." 
Very early, however, the General Executive Association 
ordered the conference societies to hold their annual 
meetings as soon as possible after the meeting of the 
Executive Association. This order came to the Missouri 
Conference at the annual meeting, in 1881. The next 
year a protest was entered against this action in the 
following terms : "Whereas the members of your society 
saw fit at your last session to change the time of the 
annual meeting from September to June, which course 
we think injurious for the following reasons: 

"1. These independent convocations savor too much 
of that strong-mindedness that our Church has always 
condemned and against which we, as Southern Method- 
ists, enter our protest. 

"2. It deprives you of the counsel and superior wisdom 
of the heads of the Church and the speeches of the 
bishops and of the general secretary and the pressure 
and sympathy of the friends of the conference, there- 
fore be it resolved, that we request the conference society 
to reconsider its action of last September and hold their 
meeting at the time of the Annual Conference." 

c ,r r. . . One could not overdraw the story of the 

Self-Dental ,r i • i r i • • i 

seli-denial or the women m pioneer days. 

There were in most cases no funds available to pay the 

travel expense of the conference officers. The women 

elected to the offices not only did the work but paid the 

bills. One of the pioneers in the Northwest writes: " In 

the early years of our work we had no funds furnished 

by conference or boards with which to meet traveling 

or other expenses. The distances to be traveled were 


66 Women and the Kingdom 

great. The methods of transportation were poor. With 
my husband and children, I have traveled thousands of 
miles in a covered spring wagon drawn by a train of 
ponies. It was sweet to serve, and the recompense has 
been satisfying." 

There is a moving incident in the records of the South 
Georgia Conference, occurring in connection with an 
early annual meeting held at Quitman. One can easily 
imagine the consternation of the entertainment com- 
mittee when these instructions came: "Please provide 

a home near the church for Mrs. , the President. 

She is old." "Please see that Mrs. is near the 

church. She is blind." "Mrs. , secretary of the 

district, is lame, and must be near the church." 

No wonder some one confidentially whispered: "The 
officers of this meeting consist of the halt, maimed, and 

The self-sacrifice included money as well as service. 
The Southwest Missouri Conference Society records the 
story of Miss Martha Carter, who was old and poor and 
almost blind and eked out a meager existence selling 
books. Her diet was bread and coffee. One year at the 
close of the Week of Prayer and Self-Denial, she gave 
twenty-five cents as her thank offering, saying that she 
had denied herself cofTee for the week. "Surely this 
twenty-five cents must be stored away," writes the con- 
ference historian, "with the widow's two mites, bearing 
interest in the Kingdom of God." 

_. ^ - There is another lovely story told by 

First Legacy , r ■, -kt , i,/- ■ ■ ■ 

the women of the JNorth Mississippi 

Conference. The first bequest to our Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society was from Miss Helen Finley, of Green- 
ville. "Just at the close of the year, seemingly like a 

Women and the Kingdom 67 

smile of benediction from the Father, came a precious 
gift to us, not to be measured by its intrinsic worth but 
according to the estimate of him who weighs by his own 
standard. In the town of Greenville lived a lovely 
young girl consecrated in heart and purpose to the 
Master's will, always abounding in good works and full 
of energy and zeal for missions, yet fragile as a flower. 
During the fearful scourge of yellow fever in the autumn 
of 1878, the devastating angel lingered over her devoted 
home till there were not enough living to bury the dead. 
This lovely girl fell before death's sickle, but before the 
yellow fever had fastened itself upon her, she requested 
her brother to see that $100 of her money, made by 
teaching a little school, be given to the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Society to aid in what she would gladly have 
done had her life been spared." This was the first be- 
quest ever received by the Woman's Missionary Society. 
It was an alabaster box of precious ointment poured 
forth. Many have been the love offerings that followed 
in its trail. 



The story of the Woman's Missionary Society has no 
meaning apart from the work which it made possible; 
it was but a means to an end. Any organization ceases 
to be of service when in becomes an end in itself. The 
creation of a world sisterhood began when the fields of 
service were entered. It is, indeed, a thrilling story, 
this cementing of friendship with women and girls of 
other races and conditions of life, a friendship, which 
will last through eternity, because founded upon the 
love of Jesus Christ. The sharing of life has been the 
program of the years, and that program has been ever 
broadening, as needs arose. ^ 

Entering the Fields of Service 
The following is the chronological order in which the 
fields of service have opened to the womanhood of the 

Date Field First Workers 

1878 China Miss Lochie Rankin. 

1881 Brazil Miss Mattie Watts. 

1881 Mexican Border .... Miss Annie Williams. 

Miss Rebecca Toland. 

1883 Mexico Miss Lelia Roberts. 

1892 Founding of Scarritt 

Bible and Training 

School Miss Maria Layng Gibson. 

^I am especially indebted to the Secretaries of the Board in 
the Department of Education and Promotion for some of the 
material in this chapter prepared by them for the Jubilee Council 


Women and the Kingdom 69 

Date Field First Workers 

1894 Cubans in Florida. . .Mrs. Mary Bruce Alexander 

1897 Orientals on Pacific 

Coast Dr. C. F. Reid. 

1897 Korea Mrs. J. P. Campbell. 

1897 Mountain Work Prof J. C. Lewis. 

1898 Delinquent Girls Mrs. Virginia K. Johnson. 

1899 Cuba Miss Hattie G. Carson. 

1901 Wesley House Work. Miss Minerva Clyce. 

1902 Negro Education . . . Miss Ellen Young. 

1902 Deaconess Movement. 

1903 Dependent Girls. . . . Deaconess Annie Heath. 

1912 French Mission Miss Eliza lies. 

1912 Bethlehem Center. . Miss Mary De Bardeleben. 

1915 Japan Miss Anette Gist. 

Miss Charlie Holland. 
1917 Africa Miss Etta Lee Woolsey. 

Miss Kathron Wilson. 

Miss Etha Mills. 
1923 Manchuria Miss Constance Rumbough. 

Miss Lillian Wahl. 

1927 White Russia in Miss Constance Rumbough. 

Poland Miss Sallie Lewis Brown. 

Growth of Constituency 

This ever-broadening program of service during the 
past fifty years has been possible only by increasing the 
interest and the membership of the constituency. Se- 
curing memberships has been the only sure way of in- 
creasing the funds. There has never been a time when 
the goal of increased membership has been allowed to 
fall into the background. Early in the history of the 
work this slogan was adopted: "A Missionary Society 
in every Church and every woman and child a member." 
There has been a continued effort to realize this objec- 
tive. In recent years conferences have competed with 
each other in the enlistment of members. Beginning 

70 Women and the Kingdom 

with a few individuals, increasing to hundreds, and then 
to thousands, and tens of thousands, the membership is 
to-day a mighty host of three hundred thousand. The 
figures in 1927 show 196,379 women in 6,657 adult aux- 
iliaries; 99,321 children in 5,155 organizations; 31,618 
young people in 1 ,623 societies. This is the constituency 
which is to-day uniting its efforts and prayers for the 
evangelization of the world; they represent individuals 
who can be counted upon for the accomplishment of the 

Education of the Constituency for Service 
The enlargement of the constituency has been es- 
sential, but its education has been far more important. 
What Woman's Work for Woman has meant in the edu- 
cational development of those who have participated 
during the past fifty years cannot be over-estimated. It 
has been the greatest educational force in the Church 
touching the life of its womanhood. Its amazing accom- 
plishment has been due to the educational processes 
which have been developed and adapted to the need, 
time, and ability of the members. 

The earliest educational process was car- 
Literature ried on through the leaflet literature. One 
of the most important actions taken by the 
General Executive Association in its first annual session, 
held in Louisville, Ky. (1879), was the appointment of 
a Publishing Committee "to have such missionary mat- 
ter printed as might be needful to circulate information 
and extend the work." The cost of the same was not 
to exceed $300. The third annual report says : ' ' Thirty- 
five thousand leaflets with 9,000 pages have been sent 
forth on their ministry of remembrance." It is interest 

Women and the Kingdom 71 

ing to note at this time 5,000 copies of the annual report 
of the General Executive Association had been scattered 
far and wide and the "results were seen in the awaken- 
ing of the brethren and in the organization of new 
societies." In 1888, the report of the Publishing Com- 
mittee states: "Leaflets have come to be so important 
a feature it is difficult to supply the demand." The first 
editor of leaflets was Miss Maria Layng Gibson; her 
work included the preparation of programs and topics 
for discussion. It is evident that the discussion method 
is not new! Miss Gibson was succeeded, in 1885, by 
Mrs. W. G. E. Cunnyngham who served until 1896, 
when Mrs. H. W. Wilson was elected. At that time 
"twenty thousand leaflets of each variety were distrib- 
uted annually." 

In the Home Mission work also, the leaflet literature 
was an important educative force. In 1889, while the 
home work was still a part of the Department of Church 
Extension, Miss Lucinda B. Helm distributed 89,000 
leaflets. In 1894, the Parsonage and Home Mission 
Society was authorized and Mrs. Arabel Alexander was 
elected editor of leaflets. She was succeeded by Mrs. 
J. D. Hammond. 

It is difficult to estimate the value of this method of 
education, especially in the earlier days. Doubtless, 
much of the present missionary interest and enthusiasm 
comes from the work of those who have labored through 
the years, preparing and broadcasting what one quaintly 
termed "the leaves of healing." The titles of some of 
these leaflets provoke a query as to their contents: 
"Female Pioneer," "Blue Ribbons," "Only a Little 
Leaven," "Go Quickly," "A Chinese Love Feast," and 
"Mrs Parley's Perquisites." In the year 1889 a Year- 

72 Women and the Kingdom 

book was published for the young people. Since that 
time yearbooks for all groups have become an important 
feature of missionary equipment. 

. The women soon realized that missionary 

Studv information must prepare the way for mission- 
ary giving, and that this was the only sure 
foundation on which abiding interest could be built. 
Therefore, the first auxiliary constitution provided for 
reading circles, "Mission studies," in addition to the 
monthly programs, were a regular feature of the Wom- 
an's Missionary Advocate. Early in the history of the 
foreign society indorsement was given to a plan, pre- 
pared by a minister, for a reading course, to extend over 
three years. The books were to be prepared by Bishop 
Haygood, the set to cost $5. The studies, in 1883, were 
based on a book written by Bishop A. W. Wilson en- 
titled Missions of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
Bishop Marvin's Book The East by the Way of the West 
was also used as a basis for study. 

In 1894, at Miss Mary Helm's suggestion, a reading 
course was recommended for the Parsonage and Home 
Mission Societies. They were all thought-pro^^oklng 
books, requiring real study. In the early days prizes 
were offered to the conference having the largest num- 
ber of readers. As early as 1886, Miss Mary Helm 
began to prepare missionary programs to be used by 

It was a decided forward step when, in 1900, the 
Central Committee of the Federation for Women's Boards 
of Foreign Missions was organized to prepare inter-de- 
nominational mission study books. Southern Method- 
ist women entered into this cooperative plan. In 1902, 
a similar effort was begun In the Home Mission Work. 

Women and the Kingdom 73 

Later the books of the Missionary Education Move- 
ment were added to the approved Hst. Seven inter-de- 
nominational mission study books were prepared by 
women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South: 
From Darkness to Light, by Miss Mery Helm; In Black 
or White and In the Vanguard oj a Race, by Mrs. John 
D. Hammond; Better American Series, No. 2, by Miss 
Mary De Bardeleben; Building the Americas and The 
Upward Climb, by Miss Sara Estelle Haskin. In 1927, 
there were 9,390 mission study classes conducted by the 
women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in 
which were enrolled 202,209 members. 

„ o The work of educating the constituency 

Home Base n i- i • i 

„ , ,. , . alone all Imes became so extensive that 
Established , ^ . . , , . 

very definite provisions were made from 

time to time. In the reorganization in 1910, Miss Mabel 
Head was elected educational secretary to promote 
this line of work. By 1913, the work had grown to such 
an extent that Miss Bennett, in her annual message to 
the Woman's Missionary Council, said: "Our literature, 
the ever-working leaven in all our effort, has quadrupled 
in bulk during the past fifteen years, A close super- 
vision of the quality and distribution of this alone would 
be no small work for any one woman. The workers in 
the field have been compelled during the past three years 
to communicate with one of five officers in the Publish- 
ing House to obtain needed literature. This ought not 
to continue. I will urge that at this meeting you add to 
your staff of salaried workers a council secretary, who, 
with the conference corresponding secretaries, shall 
have charge of the Home Base.'' ^ The Council members 
were ready for this advance, and Mrs. B. W. Lipscomb 
^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1913, page 262. 

74 Women and the Kingdom 

was elected as the Council's first home base secretary, 
Miss Mabel Head continuing as educational secretary. 
In 1914 Miss Head, who was elected to an administrative 
office, was succeeded by Mrs. Hume R. Steele. The 
work having developed to such an extent that two 
educational secretaries were deemed essential, in 1918, 
Miss Estelle Haskin was elected as secretary of litera- 
ture, and Mrs. Steele was placed in charge of mission 
study and candidate cultivation. Later the mission 
study was transferred to the home base secretary. 

-,. . Missionarv periodicals have always 

Missionary . . . ^ ^ . . , . ^ . 

. . . played an important part m the educational 

methods employed by the women. At the 
second annual meeting of the General Executive As- 
sociation (1880) the Publication Committee launched 
the first woman's periodical, The Woman'' s Missionary 
Advocate. Mrs. Frank Butler, of Knoxville, Tenn., was 
elected editor-in-chief , with five associate editors. Mrs. 
Butler was the daughter of Rev. Thomas Stringfield, 
the first editor of the Nashville Christian Advocate, 
elected in 1836. In her address of acceptance Mrs. 
Butler said: "My friends and sisters of the Woman's 
Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, your frequent and earnest appeals for more 
regular and more definite information concerning the 
work of our missionary society have induced the General 
Executive Association to make an effort to supply the 
demand." She appealed to the 12,000 members of the 
societies to support the paper. 

The Woman's Missionary Advocate met a real need 
and was received with enthusiasm. Starting with no 
financial backing, it had at the close of the first year 
6,000 subscriptions, no debts, and what was called "a 

Women and the Kingdom 75 

handsome balance of $745.51." At first the suggestion 
of a woman's magazine provoked "dissenting smiles of 
friendly brethren" but after the first year nothing more 
was heard of disapproval, for the magazine seems to 
have won " golden praise." Mrs. Butler served as editor 
for thirty years, until 1910, when the Advocate, Our 
Homes, and Go Forward were merged, becoming the 
Missionary Voice. At that time the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Advocate had increased to a magazine of forty- 
eight pages. It had a subscription list of 22,000 and was 
more than self-supporting. As editor, Mrs. Butler's 
last words were: "I am glad to believe there is not an 
unkind thought existing between the editor and any one 
of the more than 22,000 women who read the Woman's 
Missionary Advocate every month. Every number for 
thirty years has been prepared with the most loving 
care and with the use of all the mental and spiritual 
power possessed at that time." 

The companion to the Woman* s Missionary Advocate 
was Our Homes, published for eighteen years in the 
interest of parsonages and home missions. It had three 
brilliant editors: Miss Lucinda B. Helm, Miss Emily 
Allen, and Miss Mary Helm. Its first issue was pub- 
lished in 1892 and it continued until 1910 when it was 
merged into the Missionary Voice. At this time, it had 
a subscription list of 23,176 and had contributed $5,000 
to the support of the work. 

The Missionary Voice was launched in 1910 when the 
missionary organizations were merged. Into it flowed 
the life blood of the Woman's Missionary Advocate, Our 
Homes, and Go Forward. It was the united organ of 
the united Board. Dr. George B. Winton became the 
editor. Mrs. A. L. Marshall became the editor of the 

76 Women and the Kingdom 

pages bearing upon woman's work and was succeeded, 
in 1915, by Mrs. E. B. Chappell. She resigned in 1927, 
and Miss Sara Estelle Haskin was appointed her 

In 1887, the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions 
assumed responsibility for a children's missionary paper 
which had been an enterprise of the North Georgia Con- 
ference. It was continued under the title, Little Worker, 
for a number of years but was later changed to Young 
Christian Worker. 

Miss Maria Barnes, who was the editor from the be- 
ginning, continued her services until 1915 when she was 
succeeded by Miss Sara Estelle Haskin. In 1927, the 
Young Christian Worker was merged with the Junior 
Epworthian, becoming a joint enterprise of the Board 
of Missions and the Epworth League Board. It is now 
published under the title Juniors. 

Provisions for Spiritual Growth 

. The women of the auxiliaries have always 

. realized their deep spiritual need and have con- 

stantly sought to develop their inner life that 
they might be ready and equipped for the great task 
which they had undertaken. Therefore Bible study be- 
came an important feature of the auxiliary work. In 
fact, many auxiliaries were the evolution of women's 
meetings for prayer and Bible study, that had been in 
existence for years; the Bible study was in many cases 
carried over. To-day there are many opportunities for 
Bible study that the women of fifty years ago did not 
have, yet it is a significant fact that in 1927, there were 
in the auxiliaries 5,611 Bible study classes with 128,300 
enrolled. The Woman's Missionary Council and the 

Women and the Kingdom 77 

Boards which preceeded it have taken the greatest care 
in recommending books for study. Shailer Mathews, 
Robert Speer, and Harry Emerson Fosdick have been 
among the popular authors. Special courses in Bible 
study have been prepared and published in the mis- 
sionary magazines. 

Not only Bible study, but prayer has 
u iva ion j^een encouraged in all auxiliary work. 
Prayer Life '^^^ records of the past fifty years show 
that many of the women have been women 
of prayer. Doubtless their sense of weakness in the pres- 
ence of so great an undertaking helped them in finding 
the great Source of Power. Individually and in groups 
at every stage in their progress, they have taken time to 
pray. The hour for retiremen t and the waking moments 
of the night and the noon-day hour have been pledged 
from time to time to special prayer. A great forward 
step was taken when the "Week of Prayer and Self- 
Denial" became an annual custom. They have some- 
times had special days within the Week of Prayer. In 
1898, the following resolution was passed by the Wom- 
an's Board of Foreign Missions: *' Resolved, That we 
appoint a day to be included in the Week of Prayer in 
which special supplication shall be made throughout the 
Church that God, by his Holy Spirit, may touch the 
hearts of our sisters who are indifferent to his claims 
upon them, that they may be called out and consecrated 
to labor, heart to heart and shoulder to shoulder, in 
this work of hastening the coming of the Kingdom." 
Theverysame year Mrs. Nathan Scarritt, in addressing 
the Parsonage and Home Mission Society said: "The 
new year begins with prayer for the enduement of the 
Spirit such as they received who through faith subdued 

78 Women and the Kingdom 

kingdoms and wrought righteousness and out of weak- 
ness were made strong." 

Miss Bennett frequently came before the Council 
with the slogan: "Double your prayer life." In her last 
days it was her special request that the women of the 
Council unite in a league of prayer for the entire Church. 
At each Council meeting for years there has been set 
aside a room for prayer; into this room, in moments of 
crisis in the deliberations, women have retired for special 
intercession. The last memory that most of the women 
of the Council have of Miss Bennett is as she stood be- 
fore them in the assembly room of the Chisca Hotel at 
Memphis, in March, 1922, on Sunday morning, leading 
them in a period of prayer and intercession. 

After the going of Miss Bennett, the women decided 
to raise a memorial in her memory, and one of the first 
steps taken was the organization of a League of Prayer. 
To this sacred task Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, the first 
leader, became a great inspiration. She was succeeded 
by Miss Maria Layng Gibson. 

The work of this League has been continued through 
the Jubilee Prayer League, which is being led by Mrs. 
B. W. Lipscomb, secretary in charge of auxiliary culti- 
vation. Retreats for prayer were held in almost every 
auxiliary throughout the Church at home and abroad, 
the morning of the first session of the Jubilee Council 
Meeting, in 1928. Prayer has had a large part in Wom- 
an's Work for Woman. 

From the beginning until the present time 

pecifl ^YiQ noon hour at the annual meetings of the 

Emphasis boards and the Council has been given to 

devotional Bible study and prayer for the 

development of the spiritual life of the constituency. 

Women and the Kingdom 79 

The conference societies have adopted the same plan 
in their annual meetings. In a very definite way the 
South Georgia Conference has kept the spiritual aim 
before its women. They have stood for a whole-hearted 
consecration of all the powers of soul and mind and body 
to Jesus Christ. The whole constituency has felt the 
influence of their devotion. Mrs. George W. Mathews, 
for twenty-eight years their conference president, has 
been the source of much of this inspiration. 

Growing Appreciation of Meaning of Stewardship 

Women have had a growing appreciation of the mean- 
ing of stewardship; they have cultivated an enthusiasm 
for giving. The early names of the societies: "Female 
Cent Society" and "Female Mite Society" indicate the 
financial ability of women, fifty years ago. The princi- 
ple which they conceived, and on which they have based 
their entire enterprise, has been the value of many small 
gifts when linked together and systematically given. 
The increasing flow of these gifts during the fifty years 
was constant, totaling, in 1927, the splendid sum of 
$20,000,000. " It is hard to tell as we read the records, ' 
which touches our hearts more deeply, the worthy num- 
ber of large gifts which the rich have made, making 
possible some advance movement or the sacrificial offer- 
ings of the very poor, such as that made by an unknown 
member who walked seven miles over a frozen road on 
a February day, in 1890, to bring the quilt squares which 
she had made. Each is a romance in itself, and all to- 
gether they make an epic of gifts that challenge our 
reverent admiration." ^ It would be impossible to re- 

^Lipscomb, Mrs. B. W., Report to Woman's Missionary Council, 

80 Women and the Kingdom 

cord the variety of offerings that have found their way 
into the treasury. The oldest societies on record took 
orders for sewing, the proceeds of which they gave to 
missions. Women did not handle much money, and it 
seems that eggs have always been legal missionary 

Women early saw the relationship between self-denial 
giving and the growth of their own spiritual life. Train- 
ing in stewardship was deemed essential. Therefore, 
a Department of Systematic Giving was created in the 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions with Mrs. E. R. 
Hendrix as superintendent. The Board of Home Mis- 
sions had a Department of Tithing in which Miss Emma 
Tucker, Mrs. Luke Johnson, and Mrs, J. W. Perry 
served successively as superintendents. The South 
Georgia Conference has placed great emphasis on the 
scriptural plan of giving, for years leading the conferences 
in gifts. There is no way of calculating what the edu- 
cation of women in giving has meant to the entire 
Church; the figures tell the story of what it has accom- 
plished in woman's work. Beginning at the first annual 
meeting (1879) with a budget of $4,014, they have raised 
and expended in the fifty years $12,504,388.75 for foreign 
work. Beginning in 1886 with a budget of $261.53, 
there has been raised and expended in fifty years on 
connectional enterprises in the home field $7,143,368.26. 
The women have reported by voucher that they have 
raised, locally, for city mission work, $1,378,008.42. The 
societies have raised for Scarritt Bible and Training 
School and Scarritt College, exclusive of the Bennett 
Memorial, $234,363.15. The Christian Education Fund 
netted for them $85,827.09, the Bennett Memorial Fund 
reached $649,309.66, making a grand total of $20,618,- 

Women and the Kingdom 81 

306.89. The story of the fifty years is aptly told in the 
expression: "From Mites to Millions." 

Enlargement of Outlook and Conception of the 


. . The plan of the General Confer- 

Inter -dependence z,^. ^x r ■ • i ^tt , 

- -, . ence (1910) of uniting the Woman s 

of Home and ittt n/r-- it 

„ . ,,. . Board of Home Missions and the 

Foreign Missions , . 

Woman s Board of roreign Mis- 
sions was not fully appreciated by many women who 
were active in the organizations. It was keenly felt 
that one cause or the other would suffer by such fusion. 
The agreement whereby all funds should be divided 
sixty-forty, sixty per cent for foreign and forty for home, 
which was about the ratio of their respective incomes at 
the time of the union, settled the most difficult problem, 
the fear regarding finances. There were problems also 
in the matter of personnel. A leadership had been de- 
veloped in both groups, and it was desirable to conserve 
this force. Furthermore, there was much confusion in 
the delicate problems involved in reorganization. For 
a time it seemed that the machinery would become so 
cumbersome that the spirit would be lost. On the other 
hand there were new sources of inspiration. Gradually 
there came to be a real fusion. To-day there is no desire 
to separate the interests of home and foreign missions. 
Each is felt to be dependent upon the other, and the 
program of each is enriched by the other. In these 
modern days when so much emphasis is being placed on 
the inter-dependence of home and foreign missions the 
women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, find 
that they have been pioneers in the theory and practice 
of unity. 

82 Women and the Kingdom 

r ^ J ... , The publication of inter-de- 

Inter-denomtnational ... , , , 

„ ^. nominational study books was 

Co-operation .... / 

the beginning of cooperation 

with women of other denominations. Gradually there 
was an enlarged appreciation of what could be gained 
by fellowship with other groups, organized for a com- 
mon purpose. Representatives of the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council became active members in the Federa- 
tion of Women's Boards of Foreign Missions, serving on 
committees, attending annual meetings and making an 
annual appropriation in support of its activities. The 
same was true with reference to the Council of Women 
for Home Missions. With a unified Board of Missions 
the Foreign Missions Conference of North America be- 
came of greater significance to the women, and appro- 
priations were also made for its support. Miss Belle H. 
Bennett served on the Committee of Reference and 
Counsel. Mrs. Hume R. Steele became president of the 
Federation. Mrs. J. W. Downs was chairman of an 
important committee of the Council of Women for 
Home Missions. With the organization of the Com- 
mittee on Cooperation in Latin America the women 
assumed their share of responsibility, giving financial 
aid and service on committees. Miss Esther Case has 
been active since the beginning in this organization. 
The same cooperation has been true in the work of the 
Southern Inter-racial Commission and other agencies of 
similar character. When inter-denominational schools 
of missions were established in various centers, Mrs. 
Luke Johnson represented Southern Methodist women 
in forming plans, and the women everywhere sought to 
cooperate in such opportunities for leadership training. 
Women went as delegates to the Edinburgh Missionary 

Women and the Kingdom 83 

Conference, in 1910, and later to the Panama Confer- 
ence. They had their part in the Cincinnati Conference, 
which made the readjustments in Mexico. As union in- 
stitutions began to develop, especially in the Oriental 
Fields, women of Southern Methodism entered into the 
plans serving on the joint Committees of Control. Thus, 
through the last quarter of a century, the women of the 
Southern Methodist Church have been rendering service 
and reaping the benefits of cooperation with women of 
other Churches working at the same task. This has 
meant a broader outlook and a new realization of the 
greatness of the missionary enterprise. 
First-Hand Inuring the first thirty years of organ- 

^ J , ized woman's work no member of the of- 

j: uu t?- ,j ficial body of the Woman's Board of For- 
of the Fields , ,,. . , , , . ., , . . . 

eign Missions had the privilege of visiting 

the mission fields, seeing the work first-hand. In 1906- 
07 Mrs. J. B. Cobb broke the record and went to the 
Orient, bringing back information that was most valua- 
ble to the work. In 1913-14 Miss Belle H. Bennett and 
Miss Maria Layng Gibson went to South America and 
Cuba. In 1914-15, Miss Belle H. Bennett and Miss 
Mabel Head visited the Oriental fields. By 1918 the 
principle was established that the women secretaries 
should know the work first hand. With this In view two 
foreign secretaries were elected, one to serve for Latin 
America and one for the Orient; it was understood that 
each should have the privilege of visiting her fields. The 
Centenary movement made this even mxore essential. 
Miss Esther Case visited the Latin-American fields in 
1918 and 1920, and Miss Mabel K. Howell the Oriental 
fields in 1919 and 1922. In 1924 Miss Esther Case, 
Miss Estelle Haskin, and Mrs. F. F. Stephens made a 

84 Women and the Kingdom 

first-hand study of the work in Brazil In 1927, Miss 
Esther Case visited the Orient. What this first-hand 
contact with the problems on the jnission fields has 
meant in the efficiency of the Woman's Work it is im- 
possible to state, but there is no doubt that this, more 
than any other single factor, accounts for the rapid 
growth in the past two decades. 

Laity Rights ^^^ enlarging conception of the mis- 

- TT, sionary task is nowhere more clearly 

seen than in the activity of the women 
on behalf of laity rights in the Church. This moven^ent 
was not organized as a part of the missionary program 
and not financed by missionary funds, but it was fostered 
by the Woman's Board of Home Missions and later by 
the Woman's Missionary Council in every possible way; 
it was felt to be a legitimate part of the missionary pro- 
gram. To make the world Christian was accepted as 
the missionary task; the Church was not Christian in its 
attitude toward women, therefore many regarded it a 
missionary duty to seek to change the status of women. 
The women were in the embarrassing position of having 
the missionary work, to which they were giving utmost 
devotion, handled In committees of the General Con- 
ference of which they could not be members and in 
which they had a voice only by courtesy. The heroism 
with which many of the women threw themselves into 
this task can never be told. Miss Belle H. Bennett and 
Mrs. Luke Johnson, chairmen of the Laity Committee, 
bore the brunt of the leadership. The movement was 
started at the meeting of the Woman's Board of Home 
Missions In Savannah, in 1909. Yeara of cultivation 
followed. The memorial of the Woman's Missionary 
Council to General Conference asking for lay privileges 

Women and the Kingdom 85 

passed May 12, 1918, by an overwhelming vote. The 
following day the bishops declared it a constitutional 
question, referring it to the Annual Conferences to re- 
ceive the necessary three-fourths vote. When the ques- 
tion was thus thrown into the Church, it became neces- 
sary to begin a larger program of education. Seventy- 
five thousand pieces of literature were written and dis- 
tributed. Everywhere the women prayed and did per- 
sonal work. Seventeen conferences passed a unanimous 
vote for the measure and twenty-three cast more than a 
thiee-fourths vote. Four did not cast the necessary 
three-fourths vote — Kentucky, Mississippi, North Mis- 
sissippi, and South Georgia. This was a great victory 
for the cause of Christ and so for the cause of missions. 
The gratitude of the women is expressed in the following 
report of the Laity Committee to the Council in 1918: 
"Out of the great heart and mind of the leader of our 
Woman's Work, for many years, came the conviction 
and the courage born of divine inspiration which caused 
her to launch this movement. She led us in the face of 
opposition and sometimes cruel criticism. She has led 
us onward and forward all the way. To-day, as we come 
to the end of the struggle, we voice our gratitude to our 
President, Miss Belle H. Bennett, who, sparing not her- 
self, has led us to this place of wider service and greater 
opportunity in the Kingdom of God." The report closed 
with these significant words: "And now we come to 
take our place by the side of the laymen of the 
Church, not to do their work or to receive their crown, 
but to stand shoulder to shoulder with them in minister- 
ing to the suffering, sorrowing and the dying of all the 

^Woma7i's Missionary Council, Annual Report, 1918, pages 

86 Women and the Kingdom 

Call to Make J^^® ^^^^^ °^ woman's enlarging 

. p. . missionary task would not be complete 

j^. . without an added statement concerning 

the new attitude of women toward 
their task. Fifty years ago, the women of the Church 
felt a distmct call to undertake definite missionary serv- 
ice. They spoke of it as Woman's Work for Woman 
and considered this new task a plus piece of work which 
was not being done through regular missionary channels. 
The development of their work has been so outstanding 
that it has become one of the largest and most successful 
features of the missionary undertakings of the Church. 
With this growth has come the demand for closer cor- 
relation of Woman's Work with that of the General 
Board of Missions. United educational, evangelistic, 
and medical policies seemed expedient and even essential 
to the work in foreign fields. The leaders in home mis- 
sion work are beginning to look upon their task as one 
that may be accomplished only by the united forces of 
the whole Church. The Missionary problems of 1928 
are quite different from those of 1878. Some feel that 
the slogan, Woman's Work for Woman, is no longer ade- 
quate, and that the new slogan should be: The Whole 
Church Missionary. To meet the needs and the Increas- 
ing demands of to-day it is necessary that the whole 
Church become missionary. The united forces of men 
and women are required to successfully carry forward 
the missionary enterprise. The leaders of the Church 
realize that correlation and close cooperation are abso- 
lutely necessary if the goal is to be reached. 

"Fear not that ye have died for naught — 
The torch ye thtew to us we've caught 
And a million hands will hold it high. 



Since the days when Alexander Duff followed William 
Carey to India and laid the foundation of educational 
work as a legitimate branch of missionary endeavor, the 
educator has gone hand in hand with the evangelist into 
every land. When single women went out from England 
and America to serve the countries of the East, they 
naturally sought to work in that capacity in which they 
were best fitted. They were not sent out to preach; 
they could teach, for they had done it successfully at 
home. Consequently women have always rendered 
their greatest missionary service in the specialized field 
of education. 

In the early days of 1878, when Miss Lochie Rankin 
went to China, it was almost unknown in that country 
for girls, especially girls of the upper classes, to leave 
their homes to attend school. Parents were far more 
willing to entrust their boys to the missionary. Con- 
sequently the beginnings were made with little children. 
The educational program in most fields has been built 
from the kindergarten and elementary grades. It is, 
therefore, but natural that at the close of the fifty years, 
higher education should be receiving the major empha- 
sis. It has taken this length of time to lay the broad 
foundation for college work. With the development of 
national systems of education on the various fields, the 
tendency will be more and more to direct the special 
activity of missions to leadership training. This gives 


88 Women and the Kingdom 

to higher education a special significance at the close of 
the Jubilee period. That which follows in this chapter, 
therefore, will set forth the accomplishments of the mis- 
sionary enterprise through colleges, normal schools, 
normal departments and Bible schools, preparing wom- 
en for Christian leadership. 


It is a significant fact that no college work has been 
developed by the Woman's Work in any of the Latin- 
American countries — namely, Mexico,^ Brazil, and Cuba. 
In 1926, an informal request came from the Brazil mis- 
sionaries and educators from the United States visiting 
Brazil, asking that Collegio Bennett in Rio de Janeiro 
be made the basis for a Union College; as yet such a 
plan has not been deemed feasible. The Board of Mis- 
sions, Woman's Work, has part in three woman's col- 
leges; two in China, and one in Korea. It is entirely re- 
sponsible for one in Japan. 

^. ,. „ „ Ginling College is a union college 

Ginhng College , ^.,, , ^, . „ ^ 

», . . „, . made possible by the cooperative efforts 

Nanking, China r i ttt / t^ • t- 

of the Women s.l3.§£tist foreign Mis- 
sionary Society, the Christian Woman's Board of Mis- 
sions, the Woman's Foreign Missionary Society of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, the Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions of the Presbyterian Church, U. S, A., the Associa- 
tion for Christian Work of Smith College, and the 
Board of Missions, Woman's Work, of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South. Ginling College bears the 
classic name given to the city of Nanking, two hundred 
years before Christ. Nanking is two hundred miles 

^There is one exception, the " Mary Keener Institute," Mexico 
City, but it only gave degrees to two classes. 

Women and the Kingdom 89 

northwest of Shanghai. Twenty-eight high schools in 
China send their graduates to Ginhng College and thir- 
teen denominations have had students there. It is a 
great new day when missionary boards cooperate in 
training leadership. The College was established in 
1915, when it was opened in the beautiful old residence 
of a Chinese official. Those who had the privilege of 
seeing this first home of the College can never forget its 
beauty. The wisteria, rose arched paths, lotus pool, 
and rare flowers, all come to one's memory. This rented 
property was changed, in 1922, for a beautiful new 
campus, not far from Nanking University. Six beautiful 
buildings of semi-Chinese architecture have been erected 
on a campus of thirty acres. In 1920 and 1921 Mrs. 
Henry W. Peabody, almost single-handed, had led a 
movement to house all the Union Women's Colleges of 
the East, with the result that $3,000,000 was raised and 
divided among seven colleges, Ginling receiving her 

The student body of Ginling numbers four hundred. 
The College has a board of control in China with a 
cooperating Ginling College Committee in America 
made up of representatives of the various boards. The 
requirements for a degree constitute a full equivalent of 
the work done in American colleges. To students 
who complete the approved courses, the Board of Re- 
gents of the University of the State of New York, under 
which Ginling is chartered, through the Trustees of the 
University of Nanking, grants the degree of Bachelor of 
Arts. Several woman's colleges in America are "sister 
colleges." Smith College is one of the most active 
sisters; a faculty exchange is made between Ginling and 
Smith Colleges. Graduates of Ginling enter, without 

90 Women and the Kingdom 

difficulty, any college in America as graduate students. 
The College is A-grade and genuinely Christian. Mrs. 
Lawrence Thurston has been president from its found- 
ing till 1928, when a Chinese, a Ginling graduate with 
a Doctor's Degree from the University of Michigan, was 
elected to the office. The Woman's Work, Board of 
Missions, has been represented on the faculty for five 
years by Miss Ella Hannawalt, who has been head of 
the Department of Education. The Woman's Mission- 
ary Council has borne its share in the running expenses 
of the College since its founding, and the Mission of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, has had its repre- 
sentatives elected to the Board of Control in China. 
Ginling is called the College of "Golden Aspirations." 

Woman's Christian . ^^^. ^^^^"^ ,^^°" college in China 
M d' I r II ^^ which the Woman s Missionary 

eu ^u ' r^u- Council has had a distinctive in- 

Shanghat, China , „^ , „, . . 

terest is the Woman s Christian 

Medical College, located in Shanghai, China. It is one 
of the seven medical schools in China that has been 
granted registration by the Chinese Medical Association 
as an A-grade Medical school. In its present organi- 
zation it is the cooperative effort of four woman's organi- 
zations: the Women's Union Missionary Society, the 
American Baptist Woman's Board, the Reformed Board 
of North America and the Board of Missions, Woman's 
Work, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. The 
Medical School has been developed in connection with 
the M argare t Williamson Hospi tal , a hospital established 
forty-two years ago, on the edge of the Chinese section 
in the city of Shanghai, by the Women's Union Mis- 
sionary Society. It is the oldest and largest hospital 
for women in China; it has a noble record of ministry. 


Women and the Kingdom 91 

The story of the development of this Medical College 
is of the deepest interest to women of Southern Method- 
ism, because they have had such a large creative part 
in it. The General Board of Missions in 1880 projected 
a hospital in Soochow which Dr. Walter R. Lambuth 
pioneered. Dr. Mildred Philips, a graduate of the 
Woman's Medical College of Philadelphia, was sent by 
the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, in 1884, at the 
request of Dr. Lambuth, to take charge of "the female 
applicants for the dispensary and hospital." As a gift 
of the Bright Jewels of North Carolina a separate 
woman's hospital called the Mary Black Hospital, was 
erected in 1888-89. Dr. Philip's health failed and for a 
time Mrs. J. P. Campbell had charge. In 1893, Dr. 
Annie Walters (Dr. Fearn) of the Mississippi Confer- 
ence, went to China for medical work. It is said that 
within one-half hour after her arrival, she was in the 
clinic treating patients. Dr. Margaret Polk followed in 
1896, and to her belongs the honor of having organized, 
in 1907, a medical school for women — the first medical 
school for women in all China. Dr. Polk gave seven- 
teen years continuously to this work in Soochow. In 
1912, Dr. Ethel Polk joined the staff and, in 1913, Dr. 
Hattie Love. With this enlarged staff the hospital and 
medical school had marked development. The staff 
gradually became deeply convinced that the school 
should be moved to Shanghai, where it could have 
better clinical opportunities. 

At the time of the World War the entire medical staff, 
faculty and students, answered the summons of the 
American Red Cross to go to Siberia and aid in the 
work with the refugees of Czechoslovakia. On their 
return, the Medical School was reopened, not in Soo- 

92 Women and the Kingdom 

chow, but in Shanghai. By 1921, the tentative plans 
for a union medical college were being developed, and 
Margaret Williamson Hospital had been offered by the 
Woman's Union Missionary Society as a foundation for 
the Medical College. The Mary Black staff moved into 
Margaret Williamson Hospital in 1921. In 1923, the 
Medical School was reopened as the Women's Christian 
Medical College. Since the union, the American Baptist 
Board has built a beautiful dormitory to accommodate 
seventy-five nurses and the Woman's Missionary Coun- 
cil has furnished funds for the erection of the Belle 
Harris Bennett Clinical and Laboratory Building, the 
Mary Black Missionary Nurses Home, and the Mabel 
K. Howell Dormitory for medical students. The Col- 
lege was incorporated June, 1924, under the laws of the 
District of Columbia, United States of America. The 
charter provides for granting the degree of Doctor of 
Medicine. When it is realized that there are only one 
thousand modern-trained doctors, men and women, in 
China, with 400,000,000 people, then there can be some 
appreciation of what such a plant for the training of 
Christian women as doctors, nurses, and public health 
workers, means. The Board of Missions, Woman's 
Work (1928), is represented on the medical staff by the 
following missionaries: Dr. Mary E. McDaniel, Miss 
Mary Hood, R.N., Miss Anne E. Herbert, R.N., Dr 
Mary Bailey Sloan, Dr. Susanne Parsons, and Miss 
Helen Harris Bierman, R.N. This is the only Medical 
College in which the Board of Missions, Woman's Work, 
has a part, and is one of its finest pieces of work for 
leadership training. 

Women and the Kingdom 93 

„ . ^ „ The third woman's college in which 

Ewha College , r o , iv t i i • 

the women or Southern Methodism are 

participating is Ewha College, Seoul, 
Korea. Ewha College was founded by the Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, on the same compound with one of their large 
high schools, also called Ewha. For years they had been 
urging the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, to co- 
operate with them in the work of the College. Our 
Church, however, was not ready for this cooperation 
until it bettered the condition of the three girls' high 
schools, which would be the natural feeders for the Col- 
lege. Especially did Carolina Institute, in Seoul, and 
Lucy Cuninggim School, in Wonsan, need additional 
physical equipment. Finally, in 1924, a tentative plan 
was drawn up for a union college to be conducted by 
the two Methodisms. Meanwhile a tourist passing 
through Korea and hearing of the proposed College 
made a gift of $30,000, for an adequate site. A beautiful 
campus was immediately purchased in Seoul, adjacent 
to Chosen Christian College, on which buildings will be 
erected in the future. During the year 1926 Miss Clara 
Howard, one of the missionaries of the Board of Mis- 
sions, Woman's Work, was allocated to the College and, 
In 1927, Miss Josephine Dameron, of Virginia, became 
a permanent member of the staff, serving the Depart- 
ment of Music. Beginning with 1927, the Board of 
Missions appropriates $2,500 annually for the mainte- 
nance of Ewha College. Already at least twenty of the 
graduates of our Southern Methodist high schools are 
students in the College. At the Ewha College com- 
mencement, in 1927, a former Holston Institute student 
was the valedictorian of her class. 

94 Women and the Kingdom 

Hiroshima College ^ ^^ ^^^ "°^ until January, 1927, 
„. .. , that the Board of Missions, Wom- 

Hirosnima, Japan , itt , 

an s Work, assumed the responsi- 
bility for the support and development of Hiroshima 
College, Hiroshima, Japan. In her annual report, in 
1925, the Secretary of Oriental Fields wrote: "There is 
another insistent call and marvelous opportunity that 
has come to us during the Centenary period, but which 
was not a part of our Centenary askings or program. 
The Japan Mission is unanimous in asking that the 
Council assume responsibility for the Hiroshima Girl's 
School, so long conducted by the General Department 
of the Board under the splendid leadership of Miss 
Nannie B. Gaines. They are preparing to give us the 
land and the buildings if we will maintain and develop 
the school. The maintenance requires not less than 
$20,000 a year and a building program of $250,000 is 
absolutely essential at once. The school has been raised 
to college grade in English, Music, and Domestic Science 
and needs up-to-date modern buildings and equipment. 
Almost one thousand girls are in attendance in the 
various departments that range from kindergarten 
through college. It is a splendid foundation on which 
to build and truly in line with the work assigned to us 
on the other mission fields. We should assume this re- 
sponsibility if possible." ^ The response of the Woman's 
Missionary Council to this appeal was expressed in 
"willingness to assume responsibility whenever the 
funds available would justify such a step." The follow- 
ing year the maintenance budget was assumed. 

Hiroshima Girls' School was founded, in 1887. There- 

^Mabel K. Howell, Report of Woma7t's Missionary Council, 
1925, page 77. 

Women and the Kingdom 95 

fore the women of Southern Methodism inherited a 
school already forty years old, with a most interesting 
history. Its inspiration was a Japanese pilot, Sunamoto 
San, who was converted in a mission in California. He 
returned to Japan, in 1886, seeking to lead his Buddhist 
mother to Christ. The Lambuth family had just been , 
transferred to Kobe from China to establish the South- 
ern Methodist Mission in Japan. Sunamoto San met 
Dr. Walter Lambuth, taking him to his home city, 
Hiroshima, where he suggested that a girls' school be 
established. He gathered together a small group of girls 
whom Mrs. W. R. Lambuth taught for a time. The 
school itself was established, in 1887, by Miss Nannie 
B. Gaines. At that time Hiroshima was a city of 80,000 
with no modern improvements, while to-day it has a 
population of 195,000 with every convenience. 

The property of the School, when taken over by the 
Woman's Work, was valued at $74,000 and consisted of 
a city block of land in the best residence section of 
Hiroshima, covered with buildings to accommodate kin- 
dergarten, primary, and high school grades, together 
with dormitories and gymnasium ; also buildings for the 
College Department in an adjacent block. 

The plan to develop a college has been made within 
the past six or seven years. The school had applied to 
the educational authorities of Japan for the right of their 
graduates to teach in girl's high schools without taking 
special examinations. They were advised, by the gov- 
ernment authorities, to raise the school to a recognized 
woman's college. For this there was a sine qua non 
requirement for an endowment of $50,000 and for more 
adequate buildings. The complete reorganization of 
the school as a teachers' college with the preparatory 

96 Women and the Kingdom 

grades to serve as a demonstration school is also neces- 
sary. Therefore, in accepting the school the women 
faced a large obligation, some of which it is hoped at 
the present writing, will be discharged through the 
Jubilee gifts. 

Miss Gaines was principal of the Hiroshima School 
from 1887 to 1919 when Rev. S. A. Stewart became 
president. Her work has been so outstanding that she 
was decorated by the Emperor of Japan, in recognition 
of her service as an educator. For thirty years, 
the school has had a teacher and friend in a splendid 
Japanese Christian gentlemen, Mr. S. Nishimura. Miss 
Ida L. Shannon has given twenty or more years to the 
school as teacher of Bible and Miss Katharine Shannon 
has given eighteen years as English teacher. In the 
Jubilee year the women of Southern Methodism have 
no greater challenge than comes from the opportunity 
of developing this college. 

Mary Keener ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ achievement in 

Institute, Mexico ^°"^^^ ^°^^ ^^^^^ "°^ ^e complete 
City, Mexico without a brief reference to Mary 

«o«« *«<^ Keener Institute, Mexico City, the 


only college that was ever developed 

by the Southern Methodist women in a Latin-American 
country. In 1914, when the territorial readjustment 
was made by mission boards working in Mexico, Mary 
Keener Institute went out of existence, having had 
seventeen years of successful history under the leader- 
ship of Miss Hardynia Norville, and later of Miss Esther 
Case. The school was named for the wife of Bishop 
Keener, who was interested in its founding. The col- 
lege granted to two classes the A.B. degree. 

Women and the Kingdom 97 

Normal Schools and Normal Departments 
Early in the development of educational programs at 
home and abroad there was a felt need for training 
teachers. In line with this demand the Laura Haygood 
School was developed in Soochow, China. In the Latin- 
American fields normal departments have been created 
in schools already established, namely: Colegio Roberts, 
Saltillo, Mexico; Colegio Buenavista, Havana, Cuba; 
Collegio Piracicabano, Piracicaba, Brazil; CoUegio Ben- 
nett, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; Collegio Centenario, Santa 
Maria, Brazil; Sue Bennett Memorial School, London, 
Ky. U. S. A. Also, in Holding Institute, Laredo, Tex., 
and Brevard Institute, Brevard, N. C, normal deparc- 
ments have had a beginning. The last two will be 
considered under secondary education. 
_ „ . The history of the Laura Haygood 

,, , „ , 1 Normal School in Soochow, China, 
Normal School . .' ' 

c. , ^,. covers almost the entire fifty years of 

Soochow, China . , . „, . , 

organized work m China. It was in 

the plan of Miss Laura Haygood, when she was super- 
intendent of Woman's Work, to develop a school in Soo- 
chow that would be the equal of McTyeire School in 
Shanghai. Soochow is a city of 600,000 people "within 
the walls" and has always been regarded as an intel- 
lectual center. The forerunner of the Laura Haygood 
was opened in 1881, under the guiding hand of Mrs. A. 
P. Parker, and later was under the care of Miss Lou 
Phillips and Mrs. J. P. Campbell. This was known as 
the Lambuth School. The beginning of Laura Haygood 
Memorial was in 1895; Miss Martha E, Pyle was its 
principal. The school was located in a most strategic 
center, just across the street from the Soochow Univer- 
sity. It was begun in an old building but, in 1906, it 

98 Women and the Kingdom 

acquired a beautiful new horne. From 1906 to 1916 
the school had a remarkable development, becom- 
ing one of the first high schools for girls in China. Its 
graduates were in demand everywhere. In 1916, Miss 
Belle H. Bennett and Miss Mabel Head visited China. 
There had been a demand that one of our high schools 
be developed into a normal school. It was decided after 
careful consideration, that Laura Haygood should be- 
come a center for training teachers and, in 1916, it was 
reorganized as Laura Haygood Normal School with a 
demonstration school of eight grades. 

Laura Haygood Normal School not only was built on 
the foundations of Laura Haygood Memorial School, 
but also upon a kindergarten training school that had 
been developed in another section of Soochow. It was 
begun in connection with Davidson Memorial Girls* 
School, Miss Nevada Martin, of the Mississippi Con- 
ference, being the founder and first principal. In 1914, 
Miss Kate Hackney, of the Western North Carolina 
Conference, became its principal. It underwent rapid 
development and completely outgrew its quarters. It, 
too, had a large reputation with Chinese educators. 
When the Laura Haygood Normal School was estab- 
lished, in 1916, this kindergarten training school was 
moved and made a department of the normal, with 
Miss Kate Hackney as head of the department. The 
Senah Staley Kindergarten, located near the Normal 
School, became the demonstration center for the kinder- 
garten department. A normal school with such a 
splendid foundation and meeting such a real need was 
sure to grow. Its success under the leadership of Miss 
Louise Robinson (1919-1927) has been outstanding. 
The school had been so successful that in 1919, when 

Women and the Kingdom 99 

the East China Educational Association was considering 
a place to establish a union coeducational normal school 
for East China, the Laura Haygood Normal and the 
Department of Education of Soochow University were 
suggested as the best basis for the new institution. The 
Laura Haygood was offered as a foundation for this 
union enterprise, but the unsettled conditions in China 
have not lent themselves to such a development. The 
Normal School soon outgrew its quarters, and in 1925 the 
Demonstration School was given a beautiful new building 
financed by the Week of Prayer offering. During the 
unsettled political conditions of the past few years, the 
Normal School has not suspended its operations and in 
1927 Miss Kwe Yuin Kiang, a graduate of the School 
and also of George Peabody College for Teachers, Nash- 
ville, Tenn., became the principal. Under her skilled 
leadership, the Laura Haygood Normal School promises 
a still greater future of service In leadership training. 

-, , . „ . ^ , One of the oldest and best estab- 

Colegio Roberts^ ,. , , . . , , r i 

„ , .„ ,- . lished trammg schools lor teachers on 

Salttllo, Mexico . . r , i • /- i • t^ i 

any mission held is Colegio Roberts, 

Saltillo, Mexico. It is an outstanding achievement of 

the fifty years and deserves to bear the name of Miss 

Leila Roberts, who has wrought her life into its very 

fiber. Previous to the Centenary, the school was known 

as Colegio Ingl6s. It has a fascinating early history. 

Bishop Keener led the Southern Methodist Church Into 

Mexico, in 1873. The Rosebuds, a children's society, of 

Virginia, supported a day school in Saltillo for a number 

of years In the early period of the Mission. In 1887, 

Miss Leila Roberts, of Bonham, Tex., became head of 

*In Latin America the word "colegio" means "school" not 

100 Women and the Kingdom 

this school, and the following year it was taken over by 
the Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, Miss Roberts 
continuing as principal. That same year, the three- 
century-old building in which the school was being con- 
ducted, was purchased by the Board and a building pro- 
gram begun. In Miss Roberts's report, of 1889, she 
called the year "triumphant," and said: "Little by little 
has stern prejudice been overcome and harsh criticism 
defied until we have received recognition and coopera- 
tion for services which no foresight, except the Father's 
discerning eye, could have predicted; and so completely 
have we been permitted to win the confidence of those 
to whom we have gained access that now the most 
malicious darts, hurled at us by some whose consciences 
are yet seared and whose eyes are yet blinded, are inter- 
cepted ere they reach us to do us harm." Saltillo in these 
early days was regarded as one of the most fanatical 
cities of Mexico. It is interesting that at the time Miss 
Roberts was writing this triumphant message, she and 
her school were housed in an adobe building three 
hundred years old. The only protection for the win- 
dows was wooden shutters. 

As early as 1893 she stated that she was ready to be- 
gin a Normal Department. In writing of her plan in 
1894 she said: "The state provides a normal school for 
boys, but none for girls, and as teaching is about the 
only means whereby a woman can earn enough to keep 
from want, the course is very welcome." ^ Eleven nor- 
mal students were enrolled the first year. By 1896, the 
school had given such satisfaction that members of the 
State Normal School, located in the same city, began to 

^Annual Report, Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, 1894-95, 
page 39. 

Women and the Kingdom 101 

be very friendly, taking special interest in the normal 
work. Later Prof. Andres Osuna, Principal of the Gov- 
vernment Normal School of Coahuila, was most helpful. 
In 1 90 1 the normal course was extended to two additional 
years and in 1904-05 a commercial course was added. 
During the revolution of 1914-18, when all other mission 
schools of the Church in Mexico were closed, Colegio 
Roberts remained open. By 1919 it had an enrollment 
of 203, coming from six different states in Mexico and 
from the United States. 

A beautiful new site was purchased, and later an ad- 
ministration building was erected with Centenary funds. 
It is a three-story brick building and is said to be the 
most modern school building in Mexico. At the request 
of the governor of the State of Coahuila the dedication 
was made a part of the official program in honor of 
Mexico's Independence Day, September 16, 1922. It 
was during this period of enlargement that the name 
was changed from Ingles to Colegio Roberts, mission- 
aries and Mexican leaders having asked that this honor 
be conferred upon Miss Roberts, who had been the 
principal almost continuously from its beginning. At 
this writing she still serv'es in this capacity. 

A new department of leadership training was added 
in 1922, when a Bible Department for the training of 
Christian workers was opened. Miss Virginia Booth, of 
Texas, pioneered this work. The coming of a group of 
consecrated young women, definitely preparing for 
Christian servdce, was very uplifting to the school as 
a whole. Many of these were graduates of the Normal 
Department. The graduates of the Bible Department 
are serving as pastors' assistants and evangelistic 
workers. The first graduates were consecrated at the 

102 Women and the Kingdom 

annual meeting of the Student Volunteers held in 
Sallillo, April 6-16, 1922. They were accepted by the 
women of Mexico at the annual meeting of the Con- 
ference Missionary Society and appointed by the bishop 
in charge of the field. In 1927, 561 students were en- 
rolled in Colegio Roberts; this included the Demon- 
stration School, Normal, and Biblical Departments. 
During the years it has enrolled more than 7,000 
students. It is to-day regarded as one of the most out- 
standing educational institutions in Mexico. 

^ , . _ . ^ Colegio Buenavista, Havana, 

Colegio Buenavista ^ , . , , , , , 

„ . Cuba IS the latest school estab- 

lished by the Woman's Work in 
Cuba; it was opened as a Centenary enterprise in the fall 
of 1920. The women had long realized that they should 
have a high grade school for girls in the capital city of the 
island, where the Candler School for boys, conducted by 
the Board of Missions, General Work, was situated. At 
that time there was no Protestant girls' school in Havana, 
a great center of population and commerce. The Presi- 
dent of Candler College had urged the opening of such 
a school. A splendid piece of property was purchased 
across the street from Candler College, in 1919, and 
Colegio Buenavista was opened in a building which was 
remodeled to serve as a beginning. 

Miss Belle Markey was appointed the first principal. 
More boarding students applied the first year than the 
school could accommodate. Colegio Buenavista was 
popular and successful from the very beginning; it met 
a real need. In 1921, Miss Esther Case, in her report 
to the Board of Missions, said: "The Cuba Mission has 
indorsed Candler College and Colegio Buenavista as the 
training centers for our work on the island and jointly 

Women and the Kingdom 103 

the schools have begun a normal department for the 
training of teachers. ' ' 

In her report that year Miss Markey writes: "One of 
our greatest needs is trained Christian teachers. It 
seemed logical to make a beginning in this direction this 
year, since the Church is stressing life service." 

In 1921, another story was added to the building, 
greatly increasing the facilities of the boarding depart- 
ment. In 1922-23 the Week of Prayer offering was 
directed to the school, and an administration building 
was erected. In 1924, the first class graduated. During 
1926 the school received special mention by the fore- 
most educators in Cuba. In 1927, it had six missionary 
and contract teachers, eight Cuban teachers, and one 
hundred and fifty-five students. Except for missionaries' 
salaries, it was practically self-supporting, the fees for 
the year amounting to $18,215. This is a remarkable 
achievement in education for a seven-year period. There 
seems to be nothing to prevent a steady growth In the 
future years. 

„ „ . _. . . The educational work for 

Collegio Ptractcabatio . r, , , ,, 

. ^ „ ., women m Brazil has a well- 

Piracicaba, Brazil , , t i r i 

planned system. In each of the 

three Conferences — Brazil, Central Brazil, and South 
Brazil — there is a training center and a regional boarding 
school, which Is correlated with It. The training center in 
the Brazil Conference is Collegio Bennett, Rio de Janeiro, 
and Collegio Isabella Hendrix, Bello Horlzonte, Is the 
regional boarding school. In the Central Brazil Con- 
ference, Collegio PIracIcabano, PIracIcaba, Is the train- 
ing center and Collegio Methodista, RIbelrao Preto, Is 
the regional school. In the South Brazil Conference 
Collegio Centenarlo, Santa Maria, is the Normal School, 

104 Women and the Kingdom 

and Collegio Americano, Porto Alegre, is the regional 
school. The regional schools having nine grades, are 
practically junior high schools. The training centers 
are senior high schools with normal departments. 

In her report to the Woman's Missionary Council, in 
1921, Miss Esther Case, secretary of Latin-American 
fields, made the following statement concerning Collegio 
Piracicabano : "The course is developed from the kin- 
dergarten through the grammar grades and high school. 
Normal subjects are taught in connection with the High 
School Department. This is the only one of our schools 
in which training of students in pedagogical subjects has 
been attempted in a formal way, and as a result a strong 
body of Brazilian teachers has been developed." ^ 

Collegio Piracicabano is the oldest girls' school of the 
Woman's Work in Brazil. As early as 1879, the General 
Executive Association sent $500 to Brazil to aid a school 
for girls started in Piracicaba by the daughters of Rev. 
J. E. Newman, a local preacher, in that city, who, in 
1875, had become a missionary of the General Board of 
Missions. The school met with violent opposition from 
the Roman Catholics. Rev. J. J. Ranson planted the 
Brazil Mission, in 1876, and later urged the women to 
undertake work in that country. The result was that 
Miss Martha Hite Watts, of Louisville, Ky., who went 
to Brazil in 1881, became the pioneer missionary of the 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions. An interesting 
story is told of the way in which Miss Watts and two 
other teachers whom she had employed, spent their 
first three months in Piracicaba teaching one girl pupil. 
(As the school grew small boys were received as pupils). 
They conducted the school as thoroughly and system- 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1921, page 85. 

Women and the Kingdom 105 

atically as if there had been one hundred students. 
Meanwhile Miss Watts began to plan very definitely for 
the school's future. A lot was purchased and the corner 
stone of the first building was laid February 8, 1883. 
The plan for the school followed the American public 
school system and was at the time an innovation in the 
educational circles of Brazil. Before the dedication she 
had overcome opposition to such a degree that many 
prominent men in Brazil took part in the ceremonies. 

In 1884, Miss Mary Bruce, of Plattsburg, Mo., 
joined the school stafif. In her report, in 1886, she 
wrote: "Progress has aroused the opposition of the 
Jesuits and the priest has written a series of articles 
against our workers in Piracicaba, saying that all read 
the Bible and put their own interpretation upon it, and 
also that they receive some children for nothing, thereby 
forcing them to become Protestants." Two years later 
the opposition was still in evidence, for the report of the 
school reads: "When the Emperor Dom Pedro visited 
Piracicaba the old prejudice against the Protestants was 
revived. He charged the vicar to take action against 
them, and as a result an obsolete law, saying that all 
schools must have a professor of the state religion was 
unearthed. The inspector served notice on Miss 
Bruce to close the school, but she did not do so. Such 
was the popularity of the school that a newspaper took 
the matter up from the political viewpoint showing how 
dangerous to Brazil was any law which would close 
Protestant schools. The law was finally repealed." ^ 
Among the students of that period were many who 
have since contributed largely to the development and 

^Annual Report, Woman's Board of Foreign Missions, 1887, 
page 34. 

106 Women and the Kingdom 

advancement of their country, for O Piracicabano counts 
among former students many of the leading doctors, 
lawyers, scientists, legislators, statesmen, educators, and 
literary men and women of the country. 

Miss Lily A. Stradley has been principal of the school 
from 1898 to 1928. Her life has been builded into it. 
It was Miss Stradley who, in 1907, completed the 
Martha Watts Annex, which doubled the capacity of 
the school, and gave to it one of the most commodious 
school buildings in Brazil. At one time a member of the 
Pan-American Commission said that from an architec- 
tural and aesthetic viewpoint, this was the best school 
building he had seen in Brazil. 

In 1915 Collegio Piracicabano began to place its em- 
phasis on teacher-training. Courses in pedagogy and 
psychology were added and were required of high school 
students. Practice teaching was developed. In 1918, 
the school registered with the government, accepting 
thereby state inspection. In 1919, Miss Stradley, in her 
annual report, wrote: "We have many requests for our 
graduates as teachers, but we have not enough young 
women prepared to supply the demand. Preparing 
teachers for our own parochial schools and even for gov- 
ernment schools is an imperative duty." She also adds: 
"I am glad to say that our school is continually rising 
in the esteem of the people. The official government 
reports invariably place it in the first rank and speak of 
it in highest terms." In 1921, Miss Eunice F. Andrew 
was acting principal of the school in the absence of Miss 
Stradley on furlough. She was enthusiastic over the 
possibility of the school as a training center for teachers 
and evangelistic workers. In 1927, O Piracicabano had 
five missionary teachers, sixteen Brazilian teachers, and 

Women and the Kingdom 107 

two hundred students, with an income from fees of 
$17,740. The most recent honor that has come to O 
Piracicabano is its incorporation by the state of Sao 
Paulo into its pubHc school system as a gymnasium. In 
the forty-seven years of its history, therefore, this school 
has grown from a persecuted school with one lone 
student, to an organic part of the public school system 
of one of the greatest states of Brazil, without any 
limitations being placed upon its Christian life and 

Collegia Bennett Collegio Bennett, the official train- 
Rio de Janeiro ing center of the Brazil Conference, is 
Brazil with the exception of Collegio Cente- 

nario, the newest of the women's enterprises in Brazil. 
The plans for a school at Rio de Janeiro, the beautiful 
capital city of Brazil, had been in the hearts and minds 
of the women for years before it was established. From 
time to time money was set aside for this purpose. In 
1913, Miss Belle H. Bennett and Miss M. L. Gibson 
visited Brazil. They were so deeply impressed with the 
importance of the city of Rio that they decided a board- 
ing school for girls must be established there, whatever 
the cost. Months were spent in seeking available 
property. An ideal site was finally chosen, but the price 
($150,000) was prohibitive. Another site was found 
that seemed financially possible, but negotiations failed. 
The unsettled conditions during the World War, in the 
years which followed, made such an enterprise impossi- 
ble, until through the Centenary Movement sufficient 
money was secured to complete the amount necessary. 
Bishop Moore went to the field, in 1919, with $300,000 
appropriated for this purpose. Land was purchased 
costing approximately $125,000. On the property was 

108 Women and the Kingdom 

a baronial residence of the old Portuguese style. On 
the back of the lot was another building that had served 
as servants' quarters, stable, and garage. The buildings 
were remodeled, and, in March, 1921, the school was 
opened. Collegio Americano, a small school at Petropo- 
lis, not far from Rio, was closed and the students became 
the nucleus of the student body of Collegio Bennett, 
named in honor of Miss Belle Harris Bennett. Miss 
Eva Louise Hyde was its first principal and still leads 
in the development of the institution. 

From the very beginning, teacher-training has been 
central in the plans of Collegio Bennett. Miss Case, in 
her report as Secretary, in 1921, said: " It is the purpose 
of the Mission to develop the work of the school into a 
high school with normal, Bible training, and commercial 
courses." ^ The school immediately became popular. It 
was not long before its quarters were completely out- 
grown. Additional land was purchased and, in 1924, a 
new building was erected. In 1923, the first student 
graduated from the normal department. Miss Hyde, 
in her report said: "How proud we are. If only we 
could multiply the number by eight or ten, it would do 
much toward solving one of the greatest problems in 
Brazil, that of furnishing competent teachers for our 
elementary schools." ^ The entire Junior class has 
decided to take teacher-training this year." In 1924, 
five young women received diplomas, all expecting to 
teach. That summer an institute was conducted, and 
forty-five teachers took advantage of the opportunity. 
In 1927, six years after its founding, the school had 248 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1921, page 83. 
^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1923, page 350. 

Women and the Kingdom 109 

students enrolled. The faculty was composed of four 
missionaries and nineteen Brazilian teachers; the income 
from Brazilian sources was $28,300. 

^ ,, . _ . CoUegio Centenario, in Santa 

Collegia Centenario t. , • • i • i 

_ ^ -, . „ ., Maria, is the regional training 

Santa Maria, Brazil . , o i t-, •, ^ 

center tor the bouth Brazil Con- 
ference. Because the Centenary made its develop- 
ment possible it carries the name CoUegio Centenario. 
It is the newest school of the Woman's Work in Brazil. 
Santa Maria is an important railroad center, strategi- 
cally located, makingitan ideal location for an influential 

CoUegio Centenario opened its doors March 26, 1922, 
with seven students, closing the year with all that could 
be accommodated. The plans for a new building were 
begun at once and on December 6, 1922, its corner stone 
was laid, the leading educators of the city taking part 
on the program. In 1923, the student body had in- 
creased to one hundred and thirty-six. The school was 
much appreciated by the people, although opposed 
vigorously by the Roman Catholic priests. 

By 1924, the new building was completed, and one 
hundred and sixty-one pupils were enrolled, thirty-five 
being boarders. The opposition of the Roman Catholic 
priests continued. Miss Andrew, the principal, wrote 
that on Sunday night before the close of the school the 
Roman Catholic bishop announced from his pulpit that 
it would be a mortal sin to go to see the exhibition of 
manual training work or to attend the closing exercises. 
The result was that the attendance was very large. 

In 1926, Miss Louise Best became principal of CoUegio 
Centenario. That year the first graduating class, con- 
sisting of five, received diplomas from the High School. 

110 Women and the Kingdom 

The school has a Life Service Band, and the students 
are active in various forms of Christian service. Al- 
though Collegio Centenario is only five years old it has 
a substantial foundation laid and has proved to be one 
of the outstanding schools in South Brazil. 

„ „ ^^ €• u t In taking a world view of the 

Sue Bennett School , r T»/r i i- • . 

work of Methodist women in the 
London, Ky. . r , i u • 

training oi leadership, we must 

turn to the homeland. Sue Bennett School, London, 
Ky., has a normal department which is an outstanding 
agency for the training of teachers. In 1925, it was re- 
ported that ninety per cent, of the school-teachers of 
Laurel County, in which the school is located, and 
eighty-five per cent in adjoining counties had graduat- 
ed from Sue Bennett. Miss Sue Bennett, the sister of 
Miss Belle H. Bennett, while she was secretary of the 
Parsonage and Home Mission Society of the Kentucky 
Conference, conceived the idea of establishing a school 
in the mountains of Eastern Kentucky. She died before 
her vision was realized, but Mrs. W. C. Pointer, presi- 
dent of the Kentucky Conference Society, with the aid 
of Miss Belle H. Bennett and others, was able to raise 
the money to open the school. It was opened in 1897 
with seventy-five students. In 1917, twenty years later, 
it had four hundred students and property valued at 
$80,000, In 1927, a decade later, it had a student body 
rigidly limited to five hundred and a property valuation 
of $250,000. 

The outstanding success of the school may be accounted 
for In a number of ways. First, it has met a real need in 
the mountain section where it is located, and the 
Woman's Board of Home Missions was extremely for- 
tunate in securing Prof. James Campbell Lewis as the 

Women and the Kingdom 111 

first principal. Professor Lewis was bom in Ireland. 
He was educated in Liverpool and Manchester Univer- 
sities. He, with his family, had come to America, and 
he was teaching science in Ogden College, Bowling 
Green, Ky., when Miss Bennett met him and induced 
him to take the principalship of the new school. He was 
a strong personality and was able to establish firmly the 
character of the institution. The loyalty of the Woman's 
Board of Home Missions, and later the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council, in giving financial support and presonal 
supervision was an invaluable asset. 

The first concern of the school was adequate housing 
facilities, so that the students, with their financial limi- 
tations, might be accommodated. By 1900, the ad- 
ministration building, the Mary Helm Dormitory for 
girls, and seven cottages had been erected. In 1901, 
seventy public school teachers were matriculated for 
the winter course in normal training. In 1904, the 
student body numbered three hundred. A dormitory 
for boys was built during that year. In 1910, there were 
more than one hundred students taking the normal 
course. In that year affiliation was established with the 
public school system of the State of Kentucky, and Sue 
Bennett became the official high school of Laurel County. 
In reporting this phase of the development, Professor 
Lewis said: " By these arrangements, the school, without 
sacrificing any of its distinctive characteristics, virtually 
becomes a new county high school and the agent of the 
State University for its extension in this part of the 
State. The Sue Bennett Normal School is the first de- 
nominational school in the State to perfect such relation- 

112 Women and the Kingdom 

ships. " ^ Three years later the student body numbered 
424, with 173 in the Normal Department. 

The school was seriously interrupted by the World 
War. In 1917 Prof. A. W. Mohn became superintend- 
ent. In 1918, the Kentucky legislature passed an act 
providing for the State's certification of graduates from 
standardized private normal schools. To meet the 
requirement, it was necessary that Sue Bennett enlarge 
the Normal Department, develop the Demonstration 
School, and provide a new building for the High School. 
These requirements were met by 1921. 

In July, 1922, the State of Kentucky made high school 
and professional training compulsory for teachers. Prof. 
K. C. East, the superintendent of Sue Bennett, in his 
report of 1927, said: "Our College Department is now 
recognized as a standard Junior College, our High School, 
is a member of the Southern Association of Colleges and 
Secondary Schools, and the State Department of Educa- 
tion issues our certificates." In the thirty years of Sue 
Bennett history 6,000 students have been enrolled, 
many of whom are rendering outstanding service. In 
the lives of these young people Miss Sue Bennett's vision 
has become a living reality. 

Bible Training Schools 

In addition to colleges, normal schools, and depart- 
ments, Bible training schools have been established for 
the specialized training of Christian workers. Four such 
schools have been developed through the years. In 
China, the Hayes-Wilkins Bible School, Sungkiang, and 
the Bible Teachers' Training School, Nanking; in Korea, 
the Union Bible Training School, Seoul; in Japan, the 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1911, page 398. 

Women and the Kingdom 113 

Lambuth Training School, Osaka; in Mexico, the Bibli- 
cal Department of Roberts College, for Christian work- 
ers (described above) serves in training Christian work- 
ers for that field. In Brazil and Cuba distinct Bible 
schools or Bible departments, for such specialized train- 
ing have not yet been developed. There are very signifi- 
cant incidents relating to the founding and develop- 
ment of each of these training centers. 

TT Ti7-fL' The Hayes- Wilkins Bible School 

Hays-Wtlkins / 

n'hi <: h I ^^ Sungkiang was founded m 1898 

_ , . ^ ^r . to train Bible women for service in 

Sungkiang, China ,, ^-u- tvt- • r- c c 

the Chma Mission Conference oi 

the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. Until 1913, 
the time of the founding of the Nanking Bible Teacher's 
Training School, Hayes-Wilkins was the only center for 
such training in the China Mission. Since then it has 
been the center for the training of those not education- 
ally qualified for the work at Nanking. When the 
Hayes-Wilkins Bible School was founded, educated 
women in large numbers were not available for Christian 
service. It was necessary to take the uneducated and 
give to them the rudiments of an education while study- 
ing the Bible. Emphasis was placed primarily upon 
Christian character. 

This school bears the name of Mrs. Juliana Hayes and 
the Misses Achsah and Louise Wilkins, all of Baltimore. 
The Misses Wilkins were devoted Christian women and 
were friends of Mrs. Hayes. Bishop Wilson called them 
"the sisters of Bethany." The chapel of the Hayes- 
Wilkins Bible School bears the name of Miss Melissa 
Baker. The Misses Wilkins gave the money for the 
school, and Miss Melissa Baker completed it and fur- 
nished the chapel, including the organ. An addition, 

114 Women and the Kingdom 

called "Thomas Annex," bears the name of another 
donor, from the Baltimore Conference. The school was 
begun in an old Chinese house, and moved into the new 
buildings in 1898. 

The first principal was Mrs. Julia Gaither, who gave 
fourteen years of her life to the training of Bible women. 
In 1918, Miss Irene King, of the Missouri Conference, 
became principal; she was followed by Miss Mary Culler 
White. In 1922, Miss Nettie Peacock, of the South 
Georgia Conference, became principal and continued to 
serve until she was succeeded by Mrs. J*uHa Wu, in 1927. 
The school had its largest student body during Mrs. 
Gaither's administration, reaching seventy-eight at one 
time. Gradually the educational standards for admis- 
sion and the course of study had been advanced until 
under Miss Peacock's leadership it was raised to a 
junior high school. Graduates of Hayes-Wilkins, after 
a year of service, are privileged to enter the Bible 
Teachers' Training School at Nanking. In 1925, the 
student body numbered thirty. Most of the Bible 
women of the China mission have had their training in 
the Hayes-Wilkins Bible School. It has always stood 
for the highest type of Christian character, as a requi- 
site for service. 

^, «••.. r^ . , The Nanking Bible Teachers' 

The Bible Teachers' ^ . . ^ u i ^ uv u ^ 

_ . . - , , Irammg School was established 

Tratmng School ^ . , ,, , , 

-, , . _. . to meet a real need. Most of the 

Nanking, China n,. • /-i • t j . 
Missions in China had opened 

Bible schools as centers of training for women lacking 

early educational advantages. As the years passed, the 

Mission schools had graduated groups of young people 

from the high schools and colleges who wanted training 

for Christian service. Such young women could not be 

Women and the Kingdom 115 

expected to take courses prepared for the older un- 
educated Bible women. 

The Nanking Bible Teachers* Training School was 
founded in 1912 to meet the needs of these more advanced 
students. It is a union institution enterprised by the 
Mission Boards of the Northern and Southern Baptists, 
the Northern and Southern Presbyterians, the Disciples, 
the Friends, and the Northern and Southern Methodists. 
The first year the student body had representatives 
from seven denominations in six provinces. The school 
has two departments; the lower department is open to 
those who have had the equivalent of a grammar school 
education, and the higher department to those who have 
had the minimum of high school preparation. In 1924, 
on the twelfth anniversary of the school, it was reported 
that since its founding one hundred and thirty had re- 
ceived diplomas, one hundred of whom were in active 
service in eleven provinces. In the early part of 1927, 
in spite of the disordered political conditions, the en- 
rollment was one hundred and fifteen, more than one- 
half of whom were in the higher department. The rep- 
resentative on the staff from the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, has been Miss Ruth Brittain, of the 
North Alabama Conference, who has served for ten 
years as dean. The school bears the deep impress of her 
life and character. 

The administration of the Nanking Bible Teachers' 
Training School differs from the other union institutions 
in which the Woman's Work has a part, there being no 
board of directors in America. It is controlled by a 
Board of Managers in China made up of representatives 
of the various Missions, who are elected on the field. 
This plan does not make it possible for the Mission 

116 Women and the Kingdom 

Boards in America to have any part in forming the 
poHcies of the school. Miss Mary Culler White served 
on the Board in China from 1912 to 1927, when Miss 
Alice Green was elected. 

The plant of the Nanking Bible School was gradually 
developed; it has two dormitories, a splendid adminis- 
tration building, and dining hall. During the upheaval 
in Nanking in 1927 some of these buildings were de- 
stroyed by the soldiers. The school was closed after 
the taking of Nanking by the Nationalist army in 1927, 
and no plans have been made yet to reopen it. 

In the Nanking Bible Teachers' Training School the 
main emphasis has been placed on Bible study and per- 
sonal evangelism. The graduates of the school have 
been very successful as personal workers, some being 
outstanding in their ability to win disciples for Christ. 
There is a demand for the development of additional 
courses in social evangelism. The graduates of the school 
serving the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, are 
eligible to consecration as deaconnesses; in 1924 two of 
these splendid young women were consecrated by Bishop 
H. A. Boaz. Three others were consecrated by Bishop 
W. N. Ainsworth during the session of the 1927 China 
Annual Conference. The deaconesses in China wear no 
distinctive dress. They represent the new type of Chris- 
tian worker in China and will ultimately displace the 
older Bible women, who have rendered such noble pio- 
neer service. 

, ^ . . In 1890, the Japan Mission rec- 

Lambuth Training , , , • r i i 

ommended the openmg or a school 
School for - • . T^M V -Mr 

„, . . TX7 ,- for trammg Bible women. Mrs. 

Christian Workers ^ . , . , . ... ,, 

^ . _ Lambuth, assisted by Miss May 

Osaka, Japan „. ,, ,. ,,, a i^ • n 

Bice (later Mrs. W. A. Davis), gave 

Women and the Kingdom 117 

her time and strength to the development of this school. 
This Bible School, founded in 1891, was the forerunner 
of the Lambuth Training School for Christian Workers.' 
It is, therefore, a school with twenty-seven years of 
history back of it. 

Little is known of the history of the Bible School 
from its founding in 1891 to 1899. In 1899, Mrs. Lam- 
buth wrote: "The Bible School, so long suspended, is 
reopened." In the same year Miss Ida M. Worth, of 
the St. Louis Conference, was appointed to reopen the 
work. She was principal of the school till 1905 when 
Miss Maud Bonnell, of the East Oklahoma Conference, 
was appointed, remaining in charge till her death in 
1917. She was succeeded by Miss Annie Belle Williams, 
of the South Carolina Conference, who, in turn, was 
succeeded in 1923, when the school was reorganized in 
Osaka, by Rev. M. Akazawa, of the Japan Methodist 
Church. In the beginning the Bible School was able to 
secure the services of the Theological Department facul- 
ty members of Kawnsei-Gakuin, thus giving assurance 
from the beginning of high grade teaching. The Rev. 
H. O. Saijo, a member of the Japan Conference, was 
connected with the faculty from 1915 to 1922; he was 
one of the choicest Christian spirits. Prior to the re- 
organization of the School, there had been sixty-one 
graduates, twenty-five of whom were still serving in the 
employment of the Southern Methodist Mission as 
pastors' assistants, special Sunday school workers, Bible 
teachers in mission schools and social-evangelistic 
workers. At the time of the removal of the school the 
plant in Kobe consisted of a missionary home, a small 

^Bonnell, Maud, The Story of the Years in Japan, page 14. 

118 Women and the Kingdom 

school building in which was housed all the classes and 
the kindergarten, and a dormitory for women, which 
had been in service many years and had become old and 
unsanitary. The land was leased property and there 
was no space whatever for recreation. 

The Kindergarten Normal Department, in Hiroshima, 
which was united with the Lambuth Normal Training 
School at the time of the reorganization in 1921, has 
been popularized by Mrs. F. C. McCauley in the Lady 
of the Decoration. The kindergarten work of the Japan 
Mission was started in 1891 by Miss Nannie B. Gaines, 
at the request of the principal of one of the government 
normal schools in Hiroshima. The difficulties encoun- 
tered would have been overpowering to a less courageous 
spirit — no room, no money, and no teacher. But Miss 
Gaines met the situation successfully. With fifty dollars 
of her own money she built a cheap little building and, 
having had kindergarten training, she, herself became 
the teacher. Within a year the school was well estab- 
lished in the confidence of the people in spite of Buddhist 
activities. In 1895 she opened a Kindergarten Normal 
Department, conducting it single handed until 1902, 
when Mrs. F. C. McCauley, of Kentucky, joined her. 
Mrs. McCauley remained until 1907, when Miss 
Margaret M. Cook took charge and has continued in 
this position for the past twenty years. The Kinder- 
garten Normal early acquired a building of its own. The 
department moved forward steadily, graduating, up to 
the time of its union with the Lambuth Training School, 
164 kindergarten teachers. 

It was the pressing needs of both of these schools, each 
training Christian workers for the Japanese Church, that 
led to the decision to unite them into one institution 

Women and the Kingdom 119 

under the name Lambuth Training School for Christian 
Workers. It was decided to locate the school in Osaka, 
a city of more than 2,000,000 people, which is the great 
industrial center of Japan, and in which no missionary 
institution had been established. It is a city offering 
unexcelled opportunities for the study of social and 
economic conditions, and also affords marvelous oppor- 
tunities for field work on the part of the students, there 
being but 15,000 Christians in that great city. A beauti- 
ful building site was secured in the higher residence 
section, costing approximately $95,000. In April, of the 
same year, the Kindergarten Normal moved to Osaka, 
being housed temporarily in a Presbyterian School. 
The building program began in October, 1922, and was 
completed the following spring and dedicated in Janu- 
ary, 1923. The entire plant, valued at $300,000, in- 
cludes dormitory facilities for sixty students, rooms for 
teachers, classrooms, dining hall, small library, music 
studios and a kindergarten demonstration department. 
The Rev. M. Akazawa served ably as president until 
1927, when he was elected Missionary Secretary by the 
General Conference of the Japan Methodist Church. 
He is a graduate of the University of Texas and is called 
the "Johri Wesley of Japan." At present Miss Margaret 
Cook is acting president. 

The future plans of the school call for the additional 
departments of religious education and social service. 
In 1927, a large opportunity for work in the factories of 
Osaka was opened to the school. In 1926, the govern- 
ment began to grant government license to the kinder- 
garten graduates. Students are at present being turned 
away for lack of dormitory facilities. In 1927, there 

120 Women and the Kingdom 

were 294 living Alumnae, one hundred and twenty-five of 

whom were in active Christian service. 

jj . „... In the Korea Mission, as in other 

^ . . ^ c t. , missions, Bible women were used in 
Training School ' 

f, .J. the begmnmg; these women had 

not had opportunities for education. 
Short-term institutes held year after year served to give 
limited training to such persons. Later, as there came 
to be fine young graduates of the various schools volun- 
teering for Christian service, the need was felt for a high- 
grade training center. In the Centenary program for 
Korea, there was an urgent request for the establish- 
ment of such a school. About this time, the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, which owned and supported the 
Louise C. Rothweiler Bible Training School, asked that 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, join them in 
making this a union Methodist institution. The invi- 
tation was accepted, and in 1920 the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council assumed a fifty-fifty share, their money 
being used to provide a heating plant and other essential 
equipment. In 1921, Miss Lois Tinsley became a mem- 
ber of the faculty in the Department of Sociology and 
has remained there till the present as a representative of 
the Southern Methodist Mission. 

The school has undergraduate (high school) and grad- 
ate departments. The course for undergraduates covers 
four years of Japanese language, science, and history, 
in addition to the Biblical studies. The higher course 
covers three years, with special emphasis upon English. 
In 1927, there were 40 students enrolled, their ages 
ranging between twenty and thirty years. It will prob- 
ably be a number of years before the standards can be 
sufficiently raised to dispense with the undergraduate 

Women and the Kingdom 121 

department. The school places much emphasis upon 
practice work. The students carry on field work in the 
Churches and in the Union Social-Evangelistic Center, 
located in the heart of the city. Some time during the 
course they are required to have a year of practical ex- 
perience away from the school. The school affords 
opportunity for self-help in a bakery, where bread and 
cakes are made which find a ready sale in the city. Thus 
is the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in union 
with the Methodist Episcopal Church, seeking to train 
leadership for Christian service in Korea. 

„ , „. , The Palmore Institute is a higher 

Palmore Woman s . . . . . ° 

r. f 1. T ^-^ ^ institution providing training for 

English Institute „,,. ,, , . . , ^ 

-, , - Christian leadership m the commer- 

Kobe. Japan . , , , t i • , , 
cial world. It has a commercial and 

and English department; the later has the prerequisite 
of a high school course. In 1923, when the Lambuth 
Memorial Training School was moved to Osaka, the 
property in Kobe was at once developed as an evangel- 
istic center, with special emphasis upon a woman's com- 
mercial school. Such a school for women had been a 
demand for some time, and a substantial beginning has 
been made in connection with Palmore Institute, a 
school for men. During the great World War, women in 
large numbers began to take their place in the industrial 
and business world, but found themselves unprepared 
ethically and technically. Kobe has had the only gov- 
ernment commercial school for women in the Empire of 
Japan. This school can accommodate five hundred, and 
yet hundreds are turned away each year. It was a 
splendid opportunity for the Church to give to women 
not only technical training but also distinctly Christian 
preparation. In the very first year more than one hun- 

122 Women and the Kingdom 

dred were enrolled in the Palmore Woman's English 
Institute. In 1927, the number had increased to almost 
two hundred, and the school was practically self-sup- 
porting. Eleven different nationalities are represented 
in the student body at the present time. The work from 
the beginning has been directed by Miss Charlie Hol- 
land and Miss Myra P. Anderson. 

This commercial school in Kobe is housed in the un- 
sanitary quarters that were left vacant by the Lambuth 
Training School. The 1927 Week of Prayer offering was 
for this institution, but the amount was not adequate 
to provide a much-needed new plant. It is one of the 
training centers that must look to the future for its 

Chairs of Bible, State Schools 

_, ^ There are two ways of reaching and 

Departments , , ,. , ,, i r i 

of Bible. State holdmg the college young people of the 

,, . ' . Church for the cause of Christ; one by 


establishing Church colleges; another 

by planting dormitories, or hostels, for Methodist stu- 
dents attending state schools, and, when possible, sup- 
porting chairs of the English Bible in these schools. 
The second method has been the far-reaching policy of 
the Woman's Work. 

Mrs. L. P. Smith and Mrs. L. H. Potts, of the North 
Texas Conference, were pioneers in this field. As early 
as 1904, when members of the Woman's Board of Home 
Missions, they urged the Board to adopt a policy of 
building dormitories at State schools; it was their desire 
to erect one at Denton, Tex., in connection with the 
College of Industrial Arts. Later permission was given 
to the North Texas Conference to undertake this as a 

Women and the Kingdom 123 

special. After heroic afforts they completed a $50,000 
dormitory, which provided accommodations for fifty 
students. Mrs. L. B. Carroll was placed in charge of 
this dormitory, which was later given the name Smith- 
Carroll Hall. Since its erection nine hundred students 
have had the blessing of a Christian home within its 
walls. In 1920, the building was presented, free from 
debt and self-supporting, to the Woman's Missionary 

The second step was taken in this development of the 
work at Denton, in 1916, when Miss Helen Stafford was 
placed in the dormitory as Bible teacher. The next 
year she was given a chair in the college, the Bible 
courses being accepted as electives with full college 
credit. Miss Stafford was succeeded, in 1922, by Miss 
Martha Nutt, who served until 1923, when Miss Mc- 
Queen Weir, who still holds the chair, was elected. Six 
units of work in Bible are ofTered and a department in 
the College Library has been provided for students tak- 
ing these courses. In 1927, this experiment in Denton, 
Tex., had become an assured success and as a result the 
Centenary Askings for the Home Department included 
a sum sufficient to make possible dormitories in other 
State school centers. 

There was a second opening, in 1921, when the faculty 
of the State University of Oklahoma, Norman, Okla., 
sent a request for a Bible teacher. In response, the 
Council appointed Miss Mary De Bardeleben to this 
work; later Agnes Moore Hall was built. The courses 
offered by Miss De Bardeleben are given credit in 
several of the Schools of the University. 

The third opportunity was presented at William and 
Mary College, Williamsburg, Va., in 1923. This college 

124 Women and the Kingdom 

has approximately one thousand students in the winter 
session and two thousand in the summer, three hundred 
and fifty of whom are Methodists. The Virginia Confer- 
ence Woman's Missionary Society was active in establish- 
ing a Bible chair, giving $300 as a special toward the sala- 
ry of the teacher. Miss Louise Hatcher and later Miss 
Olive W. Downing were appointed Bible teachers. They 
gave, in the beginning, two courses of three hours each ; 
later eleven courses were offered all receiving credit as 
electives in the College. The women of the Virginia 
Conference, with the consent of the Council, have built 
Brown Hall as a Methodist dormitory; the first east of 
the Mississippi. 

In 1924, the State Board of Education in Oklahoma 
granted to teacher's colleges in the State the right to 
foster departments of religious education. The South- 
eastern State Teachers' College at Durant sought to 
take advantage of this. As a result Miss Oscie Sanders 
and later Miss Lena Noll were appointed to the Bible 
chair of this institution. Full credit is given for all the 
work of the department. 

The fifth opening came in 1926, at Columbia, Mo., in 
connection wi th the State University. Centenary funds, 
supplemented by money raised in the State, built Ilen- 
drix Hall, a beautiful Methodist dormitory. The 
Woman's Work has assumed the support of the chair 
of Church history in the Bible College, which is affili- 
ated with the University. These courses are given Uni- 
versity credit. 

The policy of supporting chairs of Bible at State 
schools and of building Methodist dormitories is now 
an established home mission policy. It was entered into 
rather conservatively at first but experience has brought 

Women and the Kingdom 125 

assurance. The dormitories in every case have been 
self-supporting and the attitude of State schools friendly. 
The Bible teachers have a large place in student activi- 
ties and work in close cooperation with the pastors of 
college Methodist Churches. 

In these various ways which have been decribed the 
women of Southern Methodism are seeking to train 
women around the world for Christian leadership. By 
so doing a sisterhood in Christian service is being estab- 
lished. Christian ideals are being wrought into the 
character of women and a Christian League of Nations, 
stronger than any political league, will thereby one day 
bring the world to a knowledge of Jesus Christ. 



Junior and Senior High Schools 

The training of leaders, in colleges, normal schools, 
and Bible training schools is essential in every mission 
field at home or abroad. Such training, however, is 
always, relatively speaking, the privilege of the few, 
even in the West. Therefore it is in the fields of second- 
ary and elementary education that the largest numbers 
can be reached and broad foundations laid. In coun- 
tries where the masses of the people cannot read and 
write, the graduate of a high school has an untold oppor- 
tunity for service and leadership. The work that has 
been done by the organized forces of the women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in providing high 
schools where Christian ideals may be implanted is 
most important. 

Secondary Education in China 
McTyeire School ^^^"^ ^he very beginning of his 

Shanghai. China ^°^!^' .^°""g J- ^^^^". ^,^°°d ^^^ }^^ 
Christian education of the high-class 

Chinese. When he founded the Anglo-Chinese School 
for Boys in Shanghai, he had in mind also a companion 
school for girls. Miss Laura Askew Haygood, an ex- 
perienced high school teacher of Atlanta, Ga., who went 
to China in 1884, shared this same ideal, founding Mc- 
Tyeire School in 1893. She served as principal until 

Women and the Kingdom 127 

her death in 1900, when she was succeeded by Miss 
Helen Richardson, of St. Louis, Mo., who served for 
seventeen years. The foundations of McTyeire were 
established by these three missionaries. The school was 
named for Bishop McTyeire. It opened in 1892 with 
seven students. In 1927, 321 were enrolled in the high 
school department, 300 of whom were boarders. Four 
hundred and eighty-three pupils were in the two primary 
schools, located in different parts of Shanghai. 

McTyeire School is situated in the best residential 
section of Shanghai. This beautiful property, including 
nine acres of land, was secured by Miss Helen Richard- 
son in 1916. The school had completely outgrown its 
quarters in the French Concession, and that section, 
owing to the expansion of the business area, had become 
unsuitable for a boarding school; the patrons urged a 
change of location. The property, representing an 
original investment of $22,500 had become so valuable 
that it could be made to finance a new development for 
the school. The newly purchased property had upon it 
a twenty-five room semi-Chinese building which was 
easily adapted to high school work. There was also an 
exceptionally large garage which was transformed into 
a science laboratory. A missionary home was built and, 
under the administration of Miss Martha E. Pyle (1919- 
20), Clopton-Lambuth Hall was erected. This is a 
beautiful dormitory, which cost $165,000 and accommo- 
dates 400 girls. The Alumnae Association later built a 
splendid gymansium. Two-thirds of the original prop- 
erty in the French Concession was sold to the General 
Department of the Board of Missions as a site for the 
Moore Memorial Institutional Church; the rest was re- 
tained for one of the McTyeire primary schools. 

128 Women and the Kingdom 

McTyeire School has a faculty of thirty Chinese 
and ten missionary and contract teachers. From 
the beginning, full fees have been paid for board and 
tuition. With the exception of missionaries' salaries 
this school has been self-supporting for a number of 
years. McTyeire has always stood for thorough work, 
therefore its graduates have not had difficulty in enter- 
ing American colleges. In 1914, women were permitted 
to participate in the benefits of the Boxer Indemnity 
Fund. That year McTyeire students won seven of the 
ten scholarships available for women The students 
have a self-government association, a Young Woman's 
Christian Association, and a Church of their own, the 
Laura Haygood Memorial, to which regular appoint- 
ments are made. The students hold all the Church 
offices and direct its affairs. The School has been out- 
standing in its strong Department of Music. McTyeire 
students excel in English, on which emphasis is placed 
throughout the entire course. The students carry on a 
large amount of social service work. There is an in- 
dustrial village not far from the school that affords 
splendid opportunity for such activity. 

The graduates of McTyeire are to be found every- 
where in China. Some have become doctors, some are 
teachers, others have entered the business world, and 
many who have established Christian homes are render- 
ing voluntary service in lines of Christian activity. Mrs. 
J. U. Taiang, treasurer of the China Conference Wom- 
an's Missionary Society, is a graduate of McTyeire. 

Miss Sallie Lou McKinnon of Maxton, N. C, is at 
present the principal of McTyeire. Under her leader- 
ship, the school is adjusting its course to the new edu- 
cational demands and is keeping its influence and favor 

Women and the Kingdom 129 

with the Chinese people. During the present revolution, 
its work has not been interrupted. In fact, it has ac- 
cepted students of other schools which were of necessity 
closed and had the added advantage of an enlarged 
faculty, owing to the refugee missionaries from interior 
stations. The vision of Young J. Allen and Miss Laura 
Haygood is still being fulfilled; it means much to a 
Chinese girl just to be a graduate of McTyeire. 

-,...„, , Virginia School, Huchow, China, 

Virginia School * i . ^ ^1 . , r 

„ . „. . was opened m 1901, eight years after 

McTyeire, in response to a great need 
in an unoccupied territory in the northeast corner of the 
Chekiang Province. Huchow, the silk center of China, 
is a city of 250,000; it is still without railroad connection, 
being reached only by canal boat. Huchow is a sub- 
stantial old conservative city with many prominent and 
influential families. It is called the interior of the China 
Mission. Virginia School has recently observed its 
twenty-fifth anniversary. It's student body increased 
from seven in 1901 to three hundred and thirty-one in 
1926, one-half of this number live in Huchow. It has 
two primary schools in the city of Huchow and a num- 
ber of affiliated country schools. In 1901, Bishop Wil- 
son appointed Miss Lochie Rankin and Miss Ella Rue 
Coffey to open the work in Huchow. Two years later 
Miss Mildred B. Bomar took charge. Under her direc- 
tion the first building was erected, and the school was 
firmly founded in the confidence of the people. Later 
Miss Clara Steger became principal, remaining at its 
head until 1921, when Miss Sue Stanford was appointed. 
In 1927, a Chinese woman was elected principal. 

The present plant consists of the Tennessee Home, 
the residence of the missionaries, a gift of a Tennessee 

130 Women and the Kingdom 

woman; the Ivey Home, named for Mrs. WilHam Ivey, 
of Lynchburg, Va., and a gift of the Virginia Conference, 
now serving as a dormitory for students; a science build- 
ing, erected for a Bible woman's home and later re- 
modeled for its present purpose; a new administration 
and classroom building, provided for by Centenary funds. 
The Virginia School has always stood for the highest 
Christian ideals, as well as sound scholarship. Because 
of their excellent attainments, the Chinese government 
has granted scholarships to students of Virginia School 
for study in the United States. Others of its graduates 
have also studied abroad, and some have taken their 
college work at Ginling. Many are engaged in educa- 
tional and Christian work. Virginia School has in 
recent years put special emphasis upon its Chinese de- 
partment. It has always offered an excellent course In 
music. • It is one of the best high schools of the Southern 
Methodist Church in China, making a large contribution 
to Christian leadership. Mrs K. T. Yang, the first presi- 
dent of the China Conference Woman's Missionary 
Society, was a graduate of Virginia School. 

... ^ , Atkinson" Academy is the only 

Atkinson Academy ,., , , ,.ir i 

^ , ^, . high school, exclusively tor boys, 

Soochow, China ^. . , , , t^t , t»/- 

maintained by the Woman s Mis- 
sionary Council. This school is the outgrowth of the 
West Soochow Anglo-Chinese day schools. These 
schools were founded by Miss Virginia Atkinson and 
were the beginning of the work in West Soochow. At 
first, because these schools reached only the poorer 
classes, the boys were familiarly called "Miss Atkinson's 
ragamuffins." No tuition was charged. Atabout twelve 
years of age the boys stopped school to learn a trade. 
This was before the Boxer Rebellion, when Western 

Women and the Kingdom 131 

education, taught by foreigners, was not highly es- 
teemed. In this first school the children "bayed" 
(studied aloud) the old Chinese classics. Gradually, 
English and other branches were added as higher courses, 
and boys remained for a longer time in the schools. In 
the course of time, these three day schools were cor- 
related, the McKendree School becoming the Lower 
Primary, the Waco District School, the Higher Primary, 
and the Galloway School the High School Department. 
Thus was laid the foundation of Atkinson Academy, 
which is a high school of twelve grades and one of the 
preparatory schools for Soochow University. Until 
1922, the school was conducted in old Chinese houses. 
The alumni and patrons had given a splendid lot and, 
at that time, the first school building was erected with 
a $10,000 Centenary fund. At the request of the alumni 
the name of the school was changed to Atkinson Acade- 
my. The Chinese characters for Atkinson mean "Gol- 
den Voice of Progress." Atkinson Academy is a day 
school having in (1926) a student body of two hundred 
and fifty and sixteen Chinese teachers. Miss Virginia 
Atkinson laid the foundation for this school, but Miss 
Mary Tarrant has been, as principal, its efficient leader 
for many years. 

Atkinson Academy has made a remarkable contribu- 
tion to the Christian cause in China. It was, in reality, 
the foundation of the West Soochow Church, one of the 
strongest of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 
The Chinese have had a large part in the development 
of the school and feel that it is their own. The alumni 
of the school occupy positions of responsibility in busi- 
ness and religious circles. One of the former teachers 
is presiding elder of the Soochow District. Another is 

132 Women and the Kingdom 

Sunday school field secretary for the Mission and head of 
the Publication Department of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association. This school, as much as anything in 
China, represents the thinking and planning of Miss 
Virginia Atkinson. 

_, . . y->. , , Davidson Girls' School, one of our 

Davidson Girls . . , _ 

„ . - finest Junior High Schools, is also 

School, . f . 1 . 1 . 

c, . ^. . located in a good residential section 

Soochow, China r- , x • 

of West Soochow. It is a develop- 
ment of the Sallie V. Stewart Day School, which was 
founded by Miss Atkinson in an old Chinese house. The 
Davidson School kindergarten bears the name Sallie V. 
Stewart. Davidson School received its name from Mrs. 
A. B, Davidson, of the Baltimore Conference, one of the 
pioneer managers appointed in Atlanta (1878). The 
building was at first the home of the Davidson Memorial 
Bible School, located in East Soochow and conducted 
by Mrs. Julia Gaither, Later the building was moved 
to West Soochow and used for the Davidson Girls' 

The home in which the teachers of the Davidson 
School live is the old Louise Home, the first missionary 
home built for Miss Lochie Rankin at Nantsiang, soon 
after her arrival on the field. It was taken down and 
rebuilt in West Soochow. After fifty years it still serves, 
although there is need of a worthy successor. 

Davidson Girls' School has had strong leadership 
through the years. Miss Virginia Atkinson was suc- 
ceeded by Miss Louise Robinson, of the North Alabama 
Conference, and Miss Robinson by Miss Olive Lips- 
comb. In 1924, Miss Lillian Knobles, of the Mississippi 
Conference, took charge with Mrs. J. U. Tsiang as co- 
principal. In 1925, Mrs. Tsiang became principal. Mrs. 

Women and the Kingdom 133 

Tsiang has the honor of being the first Chinese woman 
in Southern Methodism to be made principal of a large 
boarding school. She is the president of the China Con- 
ference Woman's Missionary Society. Several years 
ago, when treasurer of her Conference Society, she 
visited America and took her seat in the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council as a delegate. She is a most interesting 
and forceful personality. In the great world sisterhood 
of service Mrs. Tsiang will always be numbered among 
the first members. 

Davidson Girls' School, begun as a humble charity 
school, has now as its patrons the best families in Soo- 
chow, who are able and willing to pay for the education 
of their daughters. Its student body numbers 220. The 
graduates enter the Laura Haygood Normal, the Nan- 
king Bible Teachers' Training School, and Ginling Col- 
lege, and many take their places in the Christian 
working force of China. 

_, „ Ti/-f The Susan B. Wilson School is lo- 

Susan B. Wilson i o i • i , . 

„ , , Gated at Sungkiang, only two hours 

„ ,'. „.. ride by train from Shanghai. Sung- 

Sungkiang. China , . . , , , . 

kiang IS on the mam road connectmg 

Shanghai and Hangchow, and is an interesting old city 
of 100,000 people. Just outside of the city is the shrine 
of Fredrick Ward, who, with Charles Gordon, helped in 
leading the Manchu forces against the Boxers in 1900. 
Need was felt for a boarding school for girls of Christian 
families who could not afford to send their children to 
Shanghai; therefore the Susan B, Wilson school was 
opened, in 1903, by Miss Alice G. Waters, The school 
was opened in a rented building, but the Baltimore Con- 
ference, in 1907, furnished funds to erect a building in 
memory of Susan Bond Wilson, the wife of Bishop Wil- 

134 Women and the Kingdom 

son. From time to time improvements have been made, 
and the latest addition to the plant was a beautiful kin- 
dergarten building, the joint gift of Mrs. George Deer- 
ing, of Louisville, Ky., and Miss Sallie Rushing, of 
Memphis. It is known as the Deering-Rushing Kinder- 

The Susan Bond Wilson School is a junior high school, 
with a student body of 165, sixty -three of whom are 
boarders. It has had but two principals — Miss Alice 
G. Waters, of Kentucy, and Miss Nelle D. Drake, of 
Mississippi. The school stands for A-grade work. Its 
students maintain high standards and find their way 
into the higher schools and into Christian leadership. 
In the spring of 1927 Miss Mau Tau Sing became 
principal. She is an able leader who for years has 
been a member of the faculty. 

Susan B. Wilson numbers among her alumni Mrs. 
Wu, the Vice President of the China Woman's Mission- 
ary Society. There is no more worthy member of the 
missionary sisterhood than Mrs. Wu. She was Miss Wu 
Chi Sau, the daughter of the Chinese official who, at 
the time of the Boxer Rebellion, changed the telegram 
sent to the officials of the Yangtse Valley by the Em- 
press Dowager from "Destroy the foreigners" to "Pro- 
tect the foreigners." He was executed for this daring act. 
Miss Wu was a teacher at Susan B. Wilson before her 
marriage to Mr. Wu. She was the means of winning 
her husband to Christ. She suffered a terrible tragedy 
when her beautiful baby boy was killed while she was 
attending a Centenary meeting. Mrs. Wu's husband 
is an official in Hangchow, where they now live. She is 
a devout woman, has a home which radiates Christ, 

Women and the Kingdom 135 

and is one of the leading spirits in the organized woman's 
missionary work. 

Secondary Education in Korea 

„,^ T .. ^ Holston Institute is the first girls* 

Holston Institute , , ,,.,,.,.- 

„ _, school ever estabhshed m the city of 

Songdo, Korea. It was founded 
December 19, 1905, at the close of the Russo-Japanese 
war. Songdo is the former capital of Korea and an 
aristocratic, conservative city. Holston Institute was 
opened with 14 girls. In 1925, there were 1,087 pupils; 
170 were in the High School Department, 620 in the 
Primary School, and 297 in the kindergarten. This is 
the largest girls school conducted by the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, in any mission field. It is 
a development of twenty years and practically the work 
of two missionaries — Miss Ellasue Wagner, of the Hol- 
ston Conference, and Miss Lillian E. Nichols, of the 
Florida Conference. Missionary work certainly demon- 
strates the truth of the old adage: "Every institution is 
the lengthened shadow of a man." 

Holston Institute was begun as a Korean enterprise. 
Some Christian Koreans proposed to raise the salary of 
a Korean teacher if the missionaries would direct the 
school. The challenge was accepted, and Miss Arrena 
Carroll, assisted by Miss Ellasue Wagner, both eager 
for such an opportunity, opened the school in a con- 
ventional Korean house (24x8 feet). For three years 
this house served as dormitory, dining hall, and class- 
rooms for twenty-six girls. Then the Holston Con- 
ference, assisted by Mr. Staley, of Bristol, Tenn., who 
had seen the work first hand, furnished the money for 
the first building. The chapel bears the name of Pauline 

136 Women and the Kingdom 

Hull Staley and the library that of Mary Waterhouse. 
In 1917, a primary building was added to the plant and 
later, when the Japanese government forbade religious 
teaching in school buildings, the Wightman-Humbert 
Chapel was erected by the women of the South Carolina 
Conference, as a memorial to two of their pioneers. In 
1924, a kindergarten and music building was furnished 
with Centenary funds. The property of the school is 
valued at $100,000. Holston Institute has a compara- 
tively small number of boarders, there being (in 1926) 
only eighty-one. In this it differs from the large schools 
in other mission fields. The school constantly turns 
away students who desire enrollment. 

Holston Institute students are known everywhere in 
Korea. Many of the graduates are successful teachers. 
In fact, Holston has been a teacher-training center, 
although not allowed by the Japanese government to 
become a recognized normal school. The graduating 
class of the high school (in 1925) consisted of thirty- 
three, ten of whom entered either government normal 
schools or Ewha College, for further training. Holston 
is registered under Japanese law and meets government 

This school has always made its full contribution to 
Christian leadership. Service has been kept before the 
students as a goal. Miss Wagner, in her report in 1913, 
expressed this ideal as follows: " Constant effort is being 
made to bring all the students to realize that our Church 
does not give educational opportunity for the sake of 
education, per se, but that our chief aim is to train young 
women who may become workmen of the Master that 
need not to be ashamed." 

Women and the Kingdom 137 

Carolina Institute . Carolina Institute is the oldest 

c Q I jtq girls school of the Woman's Work 

in Korea. Southern Methodism 
entered Korea in 1895, and Carolina Institute was 
founded October 2, 1898. Mrs. Josephine P. Campbell 
was its founder; she opened school with eight little girls. 
To-day it is a fully developed junior high school having 
six years of preparatory and four years of middle school 
work. It conducts a branch primary school. Carolina 
Institute's 742 students represent the best classes in 

It was begun in a six-room cottage built by Mrs. 
Josephine Campbell, but it now has a beautiful property 
on a commanding site overlooking the city. The plant 
consists of a primary school building, a Korean style 
dormitory, and the Josephine Campbell middle school 
building, which was provided with the 1925 Week of 
Prayer offering. This school is fully recognized under 
Japanese law. 

Of the twenty-eight graduates in 1925, eight entered 
the preparatory department of Ewha College, two the 
Kindergarten Normal of the same school, five went to 
Japan for further study, eight accepted teaching po- 
sitions in country schools, and five have established 
Christian homes. The students in more recent years 
have engaged in athletics, and have twice won the 
loving cup in tennis tournaments, competing with other 
mission and government schools. Its situation, its 
equipment, and the confidence it has won in the hearts 
of the people help in making possible its largest useful- 
ness in building the Kingdom. 

Carolina Institute is the result of the service and de- 
votion of Mrs. J. P. Campbell, Miss Lillian Nichols, 

138 Women and the Kingdom 

Miss Ida L. Hankins, Miss Bertha Smith, and Miss 

Hallie Buie, all having served as principals. 

r ^ . . No school belonging to the Wom- 

Lucy Cuninggim ^ ^ . i i . 

^. , , „ . , an s Work in Korea, or, indeed, in 

Girls' School . . ^ ,, J n- , 

„. j^ any other mission held has suffered 

Wonsan, Korea . ,. , 

more from an uncertain policy than 

the Lucy Cuninggim, yet after a quarter of a century it 
seems to have come into its own. The difficulty has 
been due to the increasing Japanese population in Won- 
san and the shifting character and poverty of its people. 
The Canadian Presbyterians and the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church have both had work in this area. Further 
diflficulty has been due to a growing desire of the Mission 
and of the Woman's Missionary Council to make the 
Lucy Cuninggim the basis of an industrial school which 
should serve the entire Mission, not duplicating the 
work at Holston and Carolina Institutes. Great as is 
the recognized need of industrial education in Korea, 
there has been no missionary available, to pioneer in 
such work, Lucy Cuninggim is to-day a ten-grade 
junior high school, recognized as such by the Japanese 
government; it has a student body of 548 pupils. 

Lucy Cuninggim School was founded in 1900 by Miss 
Arrena Carroll and Miss Mary Knowles, of South Geor- 
gia. The property was purchased from the Methodist 
Episcopal Church at the time of their withdrawal from 
Wonsan. The North Carolina Conference Society 
erected the first building, naming it for Mrs. Lucy H. 
Cuninggim, a dearly beloved pioneer. At that time 
there was no railroad connection with Seoul, and these 
workers were carried across the entire country in sedan 
chairs. The school had a natural development, outgrow- 
ing its quarters. In time the section of the city in which 

Women and the Kingdom 139 

it was located changed materially. A new property was 
purchased on a comanding site overlooking the bay. 
Up to this time Miss Mamie Meyers, of the South 
Georgia Conference, had been principal, and her Con- 
ference gave money for the erection of a building. In 
1918, the South Georgia Conference added a primary 
building, naming it the Frances Hitch Primary. In 1926, 
the North Carolina Conference completely remodeled 
the building formerly erected by the South Georgia 
Conference at a cost of $10,000. Miss Bessie Oliver, of 
the South Georgia Conference, is now principal. Thus 
South Georgia and North Carolina seem to have linked 
hands in the development of this school. 

Self-help has been a distinct feature of Lucy Cuning- 
gim School. In 1916, when Miss Bennett and Miss 
Head visited Korea, they purchased a large mulberry 
grove making seri-culture a feature of the school work. 
Although the school is not now industrial in the strict 
sense of the word, yet the self-help feature is still stressed. 

Secondary Education in Brazil 

_„.-,„ As alreadv stated, there are three 

Collegia Isabella . . , . , ' , , • t^ ., 

,. J . „ ,, junior high schools m Brazil corre- 

Hendrtx, Bello , , • , , , 

-._ . „ ., lated with the three training centers. 

Honzonte, Brazil ^ . 

By this system Collegio Isabella Hen- 

drix, Bello Horizonte, prepares pupils to enter Collegio 

Bennett, Rio de Janeiro. Bello Horizonte is situated 

about two hundred miles from Rio. Collegio Isabella 

Hendrix is one of the best developed of the three regional 

boarding schools, offering a course of nine grades. 

Bello Horizonte means beautiful horizon and is the 

capital of the state of Minas Geraes. It is one of the 

few cities of the world that was planned before the work 

140 Women and the Kingdom 

of building began. In the beginning, its population did 
not fit its spacious proportions. The authorities were 
liberal in inviting people to become residents of the city, 
assisting in its development. Through the Brazilian 
pastor of the Methodist Church an entire city block 
was offered for the mission. Half of this property was 
given to Woman's Work for the development of a school 
for girls. In 1903, when this offer was made, Bishop E. 
R. Hendrix was in charge of that field. Appreciating 
this extraordinary opportunity, he appointed Miss 
Martha Watts to Bello Horizonte. There being no 
building on the lot, in 1904, she opened a school in a 
rented house with only five pupils. The Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions had appropriated $15,000 
for a school in Brazil, to bear the name Isabella Hendrix 
in honor of the mother of Bishop Hendrix. This money 
was later directed to the new school at Bello Horizonte. 
Miss Blanche E. Howell became associated with Miss 
Watts in the development of the school. When Miss 
Watts retired, for health reasons. Miss Howell became 
principal. She was succeeded, in 1914, by Miss Mamie 
Fenley, and in 1916, Miss Emma Christine took charge. 
When she came home on furlough (1927) Miss Lela Put- 
nam became principal. 

When Miss Watts opened the Isabella Hendrix, edu- 
cation in the state of Minas Geraes was undeveloped. 
The coming of a school with American standards of 
education was a great innovation and attracted con- 
siderable attention. More than once, the Secretary of 
State sought the aid of the pioneer workers in planning 
the state educational system. The school was popular 
with the state authorities, yet it suffered much persecu- 
tion from the Roman Catholics. In spite of this con- 

Women and the Kingdom 141 

tinued opposition and the rapid development of the 
public school system, Isabella Hendrix has won the con- 
fidence of the influential classes and is regarded to-day 
as one of the best private schools in Bello Horizonte. 

^ .. . 1,, ., J. . Collegio Methodista is the re- 

Collegio Methodtsta . , , ,. , , , , 

„., . „ gional boardmg school correlated 

Ribeirao Preto • , /^ t^- • i t-.-i • 

with O riracicabano. Ribeirao 
Brazil _, . , ,. r 1 

rreto is the metropolis of the west- 
ern part of the state of Sao Paulo and is the heart of one 
of the richest coffee regions. It is a strategic center for 
Christian work. The school was enterprised by the 
missionaries and the bishop of the field before the 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions had the necessary 
funds. In fact, they had refused repeatedly to expand 
the work in Brazil. The first missionary was sent to 
Ribeirao Preto in 1899. Miss Leonora D. Smith went to 
this appointment, not having the necessary equipment. 
According to her testimony she often went hungry be- 
cause she felt called to put all her own money into the 
work. This beginning is a sad story, the record of which 
we would gladly wipe out. Picture a schoolroom with 
a desk made of the door taken off its hinges and laid on 
goods boxes with children sitting around it on the floor. 
Later, when better quarters became possible, all went 
well until the yellow fever epidemic of 1903. Schools 
were closed, and the two heroic missionaries, Miss Smith 
and Miss Bowman, went into the hospitals of the city 
as nurses, one of them serving as superintendent, even 
though they were not trained for this profession. The 
courage and self-abnegation of these servants of God 
won the hearts of the people of Ribeirao Preto. When 
the plague ceased, the little school was re-opened and 
filled to overflowing; friends were everywhere ready to 

142 Women and the Kingdom 

help. The Collegio Methodista was transferred to bet- 
ter quarters, where it remained till the Council, in 1913, 
erected its present building at a cost of $22,000. The 
school was soon overcrowded, but in 1925 a gymnasium 
was added which helped to relieve the congestion. In 
1928, Miss Emma Christine became principal of Col- 
legio Methodista. 

The graduates have caught the spirit of service. 
Some have completed their studies at Collegio Bennett 
or at O Piracicabano and are serving as teachers and 
leaders in the work of the Church. Located in a rich 
state, where the equipment for public schools is of high 
grade, this school, were it given adequate equipment, 
could make a vital contribution to the kingdom of God. 

^ „ . . . Porto Alegre is a city of 150,- 

Collegio Americano _„^ r i i • i 

Porto Alegre.Brazil ^^^^ ^^^ «f ^^e largest m the 

state of Rio Grande do Sul. It 
is located four days' journey by rail or eight by sea from 
Rio de Janeiro. Collegio Americano, in Porto Alegre, 
is a regional boarding school of nine grades and is affili- 
ated with Collegio Centenario, at Santa Maria. Col- 
legio Americano is the older of the two Institutions in 
the South Brazil Conference, but Santa Maria is re- 
garded as a very important railroad center, therefore 
more strategically located for the training center. 

The work in the city of Porto Alegre was allocated to 
the Southern Methodist Church when the plan of comity 
between the two Methodisms was agreed upon for South 
America. The Woman's Board of Foreign Missions 
began work in Porto Alegre In 1900, taking over a small, 
poorly equipped school of about fifty children. Miss 
Mary Pescud was placed in charge. Miss Elizabeth 
Lamb followed Miss Pescud, and Miss Lamb was sue- 

Women and the Kingdom 143 

ceeded by Miss Eunice Andrew. The present principal 
is Miss Mary Sue Brown. 

For twenty years the school was conducted in rented 
property. A site was purchased in 1921, with Centenary 
funds. An administration building was erected, and the 
house, acquired with the property, was remodeled for 
a dormitory; later, a small music hall was added. 

Collegio Americano offers a junior high school course. 
Its work has become so outstanding that the educational 
authorities of the state have asked to use it as a prepara- 
tory school for women planning to enter professional 
schools. The outlook for this school is very bright. 

_ „ . ,,. . Collegio Mineiro, Juiz de Fora, 

Collegia Mtneiro ,-, ., f ,• c 

, . _, „ Brazil, has a history of twenty suc- 

JuizdeFora . . ^ ;„^^ _.. \. 

cessful years. In 1891 Miss Mary 

1Q14\ Bruce spoke to the Woman's Board 

in session concerning strategic cen- 
ters in Brazil and urged the opening of work in Juiz de 
Fora. This was a city of 21,000 people, which had a 
Church and a well-established school for boys, Granbery 
College. The bishop in charge of that field urged the 
opening of a school for girls, and the result was that in 
1892 Miss Bruce and eleven of her pupils were trans- 
ferred from Rio de Janeiro to Juiz de Fora, and Collegio 
Mineiro was begun. Its success from the beginning was 
almost without parallel in the history of our boarding 
schools. Children from the high-class families were 
entered, and soon the poorly equipped, rented houses 
were outgrown. 

The school prospered for a number of years under the 
principalshlp of Miss Ida Shaffer. In 1913, the enroll- 
ment had reached one hundred and thirteen. Because 
the building did not meet the needs of the school and 

144 Women and the Kingdom 

because Granbery College was receiving girls, it was de- 
cided, in 1914, to discontinue Collegio Mineiro. The 
property was sold to the General Department of the 
Board of Missions for the use of Granbery. The Coun- 
cil received, in exchange, property for the enlargement 
of Collegio Isabella Hendrix, at Bello Horizonte, and 
also a sum of money which was turned into the fund for 
the projected school at Rio de Janeiro. Collegio Mineiro 
was closed, yet its years of efficient service and the con- 
secrated lives of the missionaries have enriched Brazil 
in manifold ways. 

Secondary Education in Mexico 

, ^., ^ Instituto Ingles-Espanol, a co- 

Instttuto , , , , , >,T 

^ , „ . educational school at Monterrey, 

Ingles -Espanol ,, . . 1.4/^^.^1 

,, ^ ,, . Mexico, was organized in 1927 by 

Montery, Mexico . r 1 1 t 

the union of two schools — Laurens 

Institute for boys, conducted by the General Work, 
and Institute Ingles-Eespafiol for girls, conducted by 
the Woman's Work. Miss Dora L. Ingrum, the former 
principal of the girls' school, Is now at the head of this 
new high school. The boys' department will become a 
preparatory school for the Union Theological Seminary 
in Mexico City. 

Upon the adjustment of Church properties in Mexico, 
the Instituto Ingles-Espafiol, founded in 1919, was 
transferred to the Woman's Work from the Christian 
Woman's Board of Missions. Miss Dora L. Ingrum and 
Miss Sarah E. Warne were appointed to the newly 
acquired school. The school made steady progress, al- 
though the building was entirely Inadequate. By the 
third year, the student body had reached one hundred 

Women and the Kingdom 145 

and eighty and was meeting the approval of the people 
of Monterrey. 

It has been realized for some time that the program 
of Laurens Institute needed to be straightened; there- 
fore, in the summer of 1927 the two schools were united, 
thus becoming an experiment of coeducation in Mexico. 
The school is developing along all lines. The property 
of the girls' school is now being used for the Centro 

Secondary Education in the United States 

TT f J. r .-. ^ Holding Institute, formerly La- 

Holding Institute , r- T . r i i i 

, . _ redo bemmary, IS one of the oldest 

educational institutions of the 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions. At the second 
meeting of the General Executive Association (1880) an 
appropriation of $500 was made for work on the Mexican 
border. The following year Miss Rebecca Toland, of 
Chapel Hill, Tex., was sent to open a day school in 
Laredo, Tex. The boarding school was opened in Oc- 
tober, 1882, by Miss Annie Williams, also of Chapel 
Hill. In 1883, Miss Nannie B. Holding, of Kentucky, 
was appointed principal. The purpose of the establish- 
ment of the school was to serve the best Mexican families 
on both sides of the border and to train teachers. The 
Woman's Board of Foreign Missions maintained Laredo 
Seminary until the union of the Boards (in 1910) when 
it was transferred to the Home Department of the 
Woman's Work, at which timethe name was changed to 
Holding Institute. Dr. J. M. Skinner, of West Virginia, 
has been serving as superintendent since 1913. Be- 
ginning as a small day school with three Mexican and 
four American children, it has become a high school 

146 Women and the Kingdom 

with the preparatory grades. Since 1926 it has been 
registered with the State Department of Education. 
In 1926, the enrollment was 250; half of this number 
were from Mexico. 

Miss Nannie Holding gave thirty consecutive years 
to the development of this school. Dr. Skinner has 
given fifteen. The marvelous program of this institu- 
tion is the result of these two consecrated workers. In 
the years that Miss Holding served, she converted a 
sand dune into a tropical garden and her influence in 
the school and in Mexico during three decades cannot 
be measured. The school started with one small brick 
building, and during the years of Miss Holding's admin- 
istration the property was enlarged, other buildings 
erected, and a real missionary center established. 

The Woman's Missionary Council, during the admin- 
istration of Dr. Skinner, has enlarged the original plant. 
At present, there is a campus of twenty-six acres, a 
splendid administration building, two large dormitories, 
and two smaller ones. 

Holding Institute owes its steady growth and large 
influence in educational and Christian circles to its high 
ideals and its strong evangelical spirit. It is a thorough- 
ly Christian institution. Approximately two hundred 
of its students live in the dormitories, making possible 
a vital Christian Influence. The school has a Life Serv- 
ice Band, and has made a vital contribution to Chris- 
tian leadership among the Mexican people in Texas and 
in Mexico. 

„ . T ^-^ ^ Brevard Institute, situated in 

Brevard Institute , . r ^tt ivt i 

„ . ,T ^ the mountams of Western North 

Brevard, N. C, .-,.., , r i~. 

Carolma, is the outgrowth ot Bre- 

vard-Epworth School, a private Institution that Rev. 

Women and the Kingdom 147 

Fitch Taylor had opened in his own home in 1895. 
Later the Epworth Leagues and Sunday schools of the 
Western North Carolina Conference aided in the enter- 
prise. Upon the death of Rev. Fitch Taylor, the school 
was closed for two years. In 1905 it was reopened by the 
Woman's Board of Home Missions with Prof. E. C. 
Bishop as superintendent. The Board provided a new 
school building, but in a short time the school had out- 
grown its accommodations. Prof. E. E. Bishop was 
called to Vashti Institute, Thomasville, Ga., and was 
succeeded by Prof. C. H. Trowbridge, of Harvard Uni- 
versity, who served for fifteen years, so developing 
Brevard Institute that it became accredited by the 
North Carolina State Department of Education. When 
Professor Trowbridge took charge there was one building 
on a small lot, and when he left there were three well- 
equipped brick buildings, seven cottages, an electric 
light and manual training plant, and a large eighty-acre 
farm, equipped with stock and modern machinery, pur- 
chased in 1921 with Centenary funds. 

In 1926, Prof. O. H. Orr was appointed superintend- 
ent, and under his leadership the school has continued 
to develop. Brevard is now a co-educational school with 
academic, commercial, domesticart, agricultural, manual 
training, and music departments. It has sixteen teach- 
ers, five of whom are appointees of the Board of Mis- 
sions, Woman's Work. The student body, in 1926, 
numbered almost three hundred. 

„ . „ Ruth Hargrove Institute at Key 

In t't t K West, Fla., had a remarkable history 

jy p' continuing from 1900 to 1916. Sue 

1900'-1916 Bennett School and Ruth Hargrove 

Seminary were the first two large 

148 Women and the Kingdom 

home mission schools. In 1900, the Woman's Home 
Mission Society had opened a small day school on the 
island of Key West, where 10,000 Cubans lived. Bishop 
Candler, after visiting the little island, urged a much 
larger undertaking. At that time Miss Mary Bruce 
(Mrs. Alexander) was superintendent of the Cuban work 
in Florida; she gave a hearty indorsement to the pro- 
posed plan and was appointed to pioneer the new under- 
taking. By 1903 the school had a beautiful building 
and 250 pupils. In 1912, it had a plant of three buildings: 
Ruth Hargrove Dormitory, Bruce Hall, and Mattie 
Wright Kindergarten. The property was valued at 
:^60,000. In 1915, the enrollment had reached 750. 
The school carried a high school course with a normal 
department. Miss Emily Reid was principal from 
1903 to 1908, when Prof. A. W. Mohn was elected. 
The school's success was its problem; it never could 
take care of all the Cuban children who wanted to 
attend. When the first railroad was brought into Key 
West, a splendid system of public schools was developed, 
taking care of the educational work on the island. Dur- 
ing the World War the United States government pur- 
chased the Ruth Hargrove property for a Marine Hos- 
pital. The school was discontinued in 1916, but the 
name and the values of the school were conserved by 
establishing the Ruth Hargrove Settlement in the heart 
of the city to minister especially to the Cuban people 
working in the cigar factories. 

Secondary Education in Cuba 

^ , ^. r rn 1 J Colegio Irene Toland is the 

Colegto Irene Toland . ,,,,, .,,. „ 

,, ^ ^ . lengthened shadow of Miss Ke- 

Matanzas, Cuba , .r^ , , , , • 

becca Toland, who gave the m- 

Women and the Kingdom 149 

stitution twenty-five years of service (1901-26). The 
school was opened in Santiago by Miss Hattie Carson 
immediately after the close of the Spanish-American 
War. It was given the name Irene Toland in honor of 
Dr. Irene Toland, a graduate of the American Medical 
College of St. Louis, who had lost her life in serving the 
soldiers. In a short time the school was moved to 
Matanzas, with Miss Lily Whitman as principal. In 
1902, Miss Rebecca Toland, who had given twenty 
years' service on the Mexican border and in Mexico, 
was appointed to take charge of the school named in 
honor of her sister. 

The work of Irene Toland School was carried on in 
three different rented houses before the present location, 
on a hill, overlooking the bay, was purchased. This 
plant, including house and grounds, was bought at a 
cost of $9,000. Later a dormitory was erected, costing 
$13,000. During the Centenary period, a new school 
building and additional ground were provided at the 
cost of $38,000. Irene Toland has a seven-grade primary 
school and four years of high school ; the high school is 
incorporated in the Government Institute. Its student 
body is drawn from a number of provinces. The city 
holds the school in high regard, having voted its princi- 
pal. Miss Rebecca Toland, a citizen of Matanzas. 

In 1926, Miss Toland became an emeritus missionary 

and Miss Clara Chalmers was appointed principal. The 

school enrolled (in 1926) 141 pupils; forty-eight of this 

number were in the boarding department. 

_ , . „,. In 1900, Miss Hattie Carson 

Colegio Eliza / , ^ , . 

„ was transierred trom Matanzas to 

Bowman ^^ , ^ , • t-,- 

-,, , „ , Havana to open the Colegio Lliza 

Ctenfuegos, Cuba _ , • , tut 

Bowman, named in honor oi Mrs. 

150 Women and the Kingdom 

Eliza Bowman, of Texas. Her son, Richard, gave $1,000 
toward the founding of this school. 

The Eliza Bowman School had seven years of success- 
ful work in Havana; upon the recommendation of the 
missionaries, it was then moved to Cienfuegos. 

Immediately a valuable piece of property was pur- 
chased, largely the gift of the North Texas and South 
Georgia Conferences. The school soon enrolled seventy 
pupils. In 1914, Miss Frances B. Moling became princi- 
pal and the school was re-organized, having a kinder- 
garten and six grades. In 1919, after the visit of Miss 
Esther Case, secretary of the Board of Missions, a large 
piece of property was secured, outside the city limits, 
looking forward to the re-location of the school. How- 
ever, in 1921, both pieces of property were sold and a 
site, including two city blocks of land and a large build- 
ing, was purchased. The house was remodeled for school 
purposes, but its capacity has long been outgrown. 
There is no boarding department and not adequate 
space for class work. One of the most imperative needs 
of the Woman's Work is a new building at Cienfuegos. 
The Colegio Elzia Bowman has two years of high 
school with government incorporation, and is highly ap- 
preciated by the people of the city. 



Day Schools and Kindergartens 

_ , A survey of the past fifty years reveals 

„^ ^ ^ the large part that kindergartens and 

Statement , , , , i , • , c 

day schools have had m the program oi 

missions. These small centers of work with "just the 

children" do not make the impression on the average 

mind that the larger institutions make. Even a student 

of missions is apt to overlook their significance. The 

story of what they have accomplished in the extension 

of the Christian movement has yet to be written. 

Kindergartens and day schools have had a twofold 
purpose. They have furnished methods of approach to 
non-Christian groups and given access to closed homes. 
They have aided Christian communities in providing 
for the education of their little ones, serving as an ad- 
junct to the growing Christian churches. 

Bishop Wilson, visiting the China field (in 1887), 
wrote regarding these day schools: "Every child brought 
into your schools opens the way into a household, first 
for the ladies and then for our preachers, and secures 
the attendance of some or all the members of the family 
upon the ministry of our missionaries. The schools 
cluster around the churches, and in some places the chil- 
dren are frequently gathered into them for prayers. On 
Sunday all the schools unite at the church for the Sun- 
day school. It is impossible to calculate the effect such 


152 Women and the Kingdom 

work must have in the course of years. Certainly it 
is the most wisely planned and effective method of 
work I have known." 

Many of these small day schools and kindergartens 
have developed into higher institutions. They have 
been the little acorns from which the great oaks have 
grown. The connection between Mrs. J. W. Lambuth's 
little day school in Shanghai and the influential Mc- 
Tyeire School should always be remembered. There is 
also a vital connection between the day schools of West 
Soochow, founded by Miss Virginia Atkinson, and the 
Davidson Girl's School, also Ackinson Academy. How- 
ever, kindergartens and day schools on mission fields 
serve a far greater purpose than as foundations for 
larger educational enterprises; they are evangelizing and 
Christianizing agencies. 

_. „ , , . Leaving out of consideration the 

Day Schools and ,. , ^^ , , , , m- 

-.-. , ^ kmdergartens and day schools afnli- 
Kindergartens i . , , . , , . , . 

. _, . ated with higher educational insti- 
m China . ... , 

tutions or evangelistic centers, the 

Woman's Missionary Council is investing approximately 

$10,000 annually in unaffiliated kindergartens and day 

schools in China. Most of these kindergartens and day 

schools, especially those in country places, are under the 

supervision of itinerating evangelistic workers. As they 

go from place to place visiting in the homes and aiding 

in the work of the Church, they supervise the rural or 

village school, encouraging its teacher and pupils. 

A number of missionaries in China have given much 

time and attention to the development and supervision 

of these schools: Miss Lochie Rankin, Miss Dora Rankin, 

Miss Virginia Atkinson, Miss Alice G. Waters, Miss 

Mary Culler White, Miss Maggie J. Rogers, Miss Leila 

Women and the Kingdom 153 

M. Bliler, Miss Mildred B. Bomar, Miss Alice Green, 
and Miss Ida Anderson. 

Many of these schools have been supported as specials 
by individuals and groups in the United States, The 
following are some of the names that have been given 
to these schools: Blanche Fentress and Bennettsville, 
Huchow; Eslick-Hutsun, Humbert, Changchow; Faith 
Johnson and Theodosia Wales, Changshu; Reavis, 
Bakmau, Sallie V. Stweart, Soochow; Mary Virginia 
Nabors, Wusih; James and Lucy Fant, Front Royal; 
Allene Barcroft, Sungkiang. There are many others; it 
is not possible to mention them all, but they represent 
the love and loyalty of those who have been devoted to 
this special form of service. 

It is impossible to estimate the value of such schools 
in a country like China, with no adequate provision for 
the education of its children. The three or four years 
children spend in these little schools are, for many of 
them, a liberal education. The native teachers, trained 
in the junior and senior high schools and Laura Haygood 
Normal, often become leaders in these communities. 
Great attention has been given to Bible teaching and the 
development of che spiritual life of the children. Music 
and games have brought joy and gladness into their 
lives. Parent-teachers' associations, usually called 
mothers^ meetings, have become a connecting link be- 
tween the school and the home. Such large possibilities 
lie within these schools that investigations are being 
made and plans set on foot to provide educational 
supervision and to correlate them with the Laura Hay- 
good Normal School. 

Some of these day schools have grown to be out- 
standing institutions. The two in Changchow deserve 

154 Women and the Kingdom 

special mention. Humbert School was for for many- 
years under Miss Ida Anderson's supervision, and 
the North Gate School represents the work of Miss 
Ella D. Leverett. These schools have seven grades 
and serve as feeders for the high schools of the Mission. 
The North Gate School was given a splendid new plant 
by the Centenary. 

_, „ . , . Perhaps in no other field have the 

Day Schools and , . , 

„. . , kmdergarten and day school meant 

Kindergartens ° . ^^ -^ , , ,-,. 

. -. so much asm Korea, where the Wom- 

in Korea , t»t- • ^ t • • 

an s Missionary Council is investing 

$15,000 annually in this work. Kuelpang is the distinc- 
tive name which the Koreans have given to the smallest 
of these schools. Usually they are little one-teacher 
schools, related closely to the country Church. The 
patrons pay one-half the expense and the Mission the 
other half. They are the bright spots of the rural vil- 
lages. In many of the county seats there are larger day 
schools that have had a steady development and which 
have been under the close supervision of educational 
and evangelistic workers. Five of these, to which Miss 
Carrie Una Jackson has for many years given close 
supervision, are in the Choon Chun District; similar 
schools in the Wonsan District have been supervised by 
Miss Kate Cooper. 

Miss Bertha A. Smith sets forth clearly the advan- 
tages which the children of Korea receive from the kin- 
dergarten and day school: "In Korea, custom requires 
children to sit quietly in the presence of grown people. 
If they move at all it must be in the most deliberate and 
dignified manner. Not even in the yard do the children 
find a place to play. This is a court, either bare or 
planted in vegetables. All the rooms open out upon it, 

Women and the Kingdom 155 

and noise made here penetrates the entire house. There 

are few games children can play in these yards without 

being criticized by elders. Sometimes all the grown 

people go away and leave the children to keep house. 

Then they dare to bring some of their street playmates 

within the gate. Usually the unsympathetic, if not 

hostile, attitude of the grown people is sufificient to 

quench their interest in play. As a rule the children do 

not play the few games they know, but aimlessly wander 

about." 1 

Another Korean worker writes that as yet no special 

restrictions have been placed on the kindergartens by 

the Japanese authorities. Kindergartens in that country 

present the greatest opportunities for Christian social 


-,. _, ^ The largest field for kindergarten 

Kindergartens , • • t tu u- u- V- i » 

. work is m Japan. 1 he Hiroshima Girls 

School has the only mission day school 
of primary grade. Ninety-eight per cent of Japan's 
children are in the public schools. The Japanese gov- 
ernment appreciates the kindergarten and wherever pos- 
sible has incorporated it into its public school system. 
As yet, because of lack of teachers, the kindergarten is 
the privilege of the few. The influence of the child in 
the Japanese home is such that the Christian kinder- 
garten is regarded as one of the greatest agencies for 
advancing the cause of Christ. This open door of 
opportunity influences the Woman's Missionary Coun- 
cil to contribute $11,000 annually to the support of 
twenty-eight kindergartens located around the Inland 
Sea, from Osaka to Shimonoseki. If funds were avail- 

^Missionary Voice, June, 1920, pages 184-85. 

156 Women and the Kingdom 

able there could be twice that number. By this means 
at least one thousand little children are learning the 
story of Jesus. 

The kindergarten in Japan is an independent insti- 
tution with a distinctive character; it is unrelated to other 
educational processes. Often the kindergarten is beauti- 
fully housed and has a national reputation, worthy of 
visits from tourists. It is said of the kindergartens in 
Japan that they are like " the stone that the builders re- 
jected." They are a vital evangelizing force; hundreds 
of homes have been won for Christ through kindergarten 
children. Usually there is a mother's and father's asso- 
ciation affiliated with the kindergarten and graduate 
chihs are formed, perpetuating its influence even after 
the child enters the public school. The kindergarten 
seems to belong particularly to the Japanese child; he 
is so wonderfully adapted to it. Dressed in his little 
gay colored clothes, he makes it the most fascinating 
place, even for the adult. There are twelve thousand 
children enrolled in the kindergartens of Japan. 

A fascinating story has been told by Mrs. F. C. Mc- 
Cauley^ (the Lady of the Decoration), illustrating the 
influence that a child may have upon a home: "Christ- 
mas in the kindergarten was a time when 'peace on 
earth, good will to men' had a new and deeper meaning. 
Many of the children were experiencing for the first 
time the joy of unselfish giving and the happiness of 
all that Christmas means. To see a child's soul awake 
to the thrill of the Christmas story and to see how that 
story holds and fascinates is an experience that makes 
all the hard places and the difficult things worth while. 

^Co Forward, June, 1905, page 20. 

Women and the Kingdom 157 

A rosy-cheeked, bright-eyed boy, six years old, belonging 

to a family of rank, was having the first Christmas of 

his life. From the beginning of the preparation of new 

songs and presents for the fathers and mothers, made by 

the children, this boy's interest was unabated. The 

whole meaning did not seem co dawn upon him till after 

Christmas Day exercises in the kindergarten. During 

the games, songs, and distribution of presents, he was 

perfectly quiet, seemingly overcome with the splendor 

of it all. Then he rushed home and shouted as he 

entered the door: 'Mother, mother, make a feast, a big 

one, a birthday feast.' His mother asked for whom she 

should make a feast, it being customary to celebrate 

birthdays by great feasts, especially for boys. At the 

hesitation of his mother, the boy opened wide his eyes 

and said: 'Why, mother, it is Christ's birthday, and we 

must get busy and make a feast.' Boys usually rule 

the home in Japan ; so a feast was spread, and with much 

joy and pleasure the little boy paid his first Christmas 

tribute to the Babe in Bethlehem." 

_ „ . , . Day schools and kindergartens do 

Day Schools and _ ..... 

„. . . not figure as largely m the mission- 

Ktndergartens tn '^ r t • a 

T ^- A ' ary program of Latm America as 

Latin America . . 

in the Orient. Little effort has been 

made to train native kindergarten workers. There is a 
department in Colegio Roberts, Saltillo, Mexico, where 
kindergarten teachers are being trained. Formerly there 
was such a department in Piracicaba, Brazil; this, how- 
ever, has been discontinued. 

Most of the boarding schools in Latin America have 
a large number of day pupils in their primary grades. 
Eliza Bowman School, in Cuba, is an important day 
school. In Brazil it is the policy of the native churches to 

158 Women and the Kingdom 

foster the parochial schools. The Woman's Missionary 
Society of Brazil also gives large support to day schools. 
The only day schools supported by the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council are in Porto Alegre and in Rio de 
Janeiro. In Porto Alegre there is a day school in con- 
nection with the Institutional Church, in a very needy 
portion of the city. It has an enrollment of two hundred 
pupils. In the city of Rio de Janeiro the Board of Mis- 
sions, Woman's Work, gives support to five day schools. 
They enroll nine hundred children and are affiliated with 
Collegio Bennett. The largest of these schools is a part 
of the People's Central Institute, an Institutional 
Church in the heart of Rio de Janeiro. The school's 
enrollment numbers more than two hundred. In 1925, 
Villa Isabel was given a new building, which is used for 
the day school, night classes, a Sunday school, and 
social occasions. 

The only day school supported by the Council in 
Mexico is at Saltillo. It Is located near Colegio Roberts 
and is supervised by the Normal Department of that 

, ^ „ , The day schools for Cubans and 

Schools for Cubans _ ,. . ,., ^- r r- i 

, _ . ^ , . Italians m YborCity, tor Cubans 

and Orientals tn ir t 

. XT . J o. . m West Tampa, and tor Japanese 

the United States , x^ -r A , 

on the Pacific Coast were begun 

In the earliest years of home mission activity. The 

schools for Cubans will always be associated with the 

names of Miss Bruce (Mrs. Alexander), who first served 

In Brazil and later gave herself unstintedly to the 

Cubans of Florida, and Mrs. Rosa and Miss Emelina 

Valdes, who gave twenty years of devoted service in 

West Tampa. The Ybor City school, opened in 1894, 

was named for Mrs. Eliza Wolff, of St. Louis, who made 

Women and the Kingdom 159 

it financially possible. The West Tampa school was 
opened the next year. These schools were for the 
children of Cubans who worked in the cigar factories. 
Gradually they developed social programs to meet 
community needs, till they finally became social-evan- 
gelistic centers, retaining their names. 

Since its founding, the Mary Helm Hall, at Alameda, 
Cal., has been a social evangelistic center among the 
Japanese. At their request it was called Mary Helm 
Hall. It is now a part of the program of the Japanese 
Churches. The Japanese kindergarten has always been 
the main feature of this center. This work among the 
Japanese was supervised first by Dr. C. F. Reid (1903- 
1910) and then by Mr. and Mrs. William Acton. 

Elementary Boarding Schools 

^ , Elementary education on the mission 

General ^ , , . , ,. . , , . , 

held is by no means limited to kindergar- 
Statement , „ , i i r i 7 

tens and small day schools ot three or tour 

grades. Some of the most influential work is being 
done by schools having seven or eight grades. When 
these are hoarding schools so that the pupils live under 
the influence of their teachers, in Christian school homes, 
they furnish the finest type of missionary service. 
Schools of this type are doing splendid work in Mexico. 
Possibly we have not appreciated, as we should, the 
services rendered by some missionaries, especially in 
Latin America, who have lived in dormitories with little 
children, eating at the tables with them, caring for them 
in illness, and helping them with all their other child- 
hood needs. Such schools are great mother hearts as 
well as educational institutions of high standard. There 
were two such splendid schools in Mexico that passed 

160 Women and the Kingdom 

into the hands of other Boards in the territorial adjust- 
ments of 1914; the Coleglo Ingles, at San Luis Potosi, 
which is still being conducted by the Disciples, and 
Instituto Colon in Guadalajara, which is owned by the 

-, , . „ , One of the leading educators of 

Colegto Palmore , , . , 

^. ., , ,, . Mexico gave the commencement 
Chihuahua, Mexico ° r ^ i • 

address to the graduates of Colegio 

Palmore in 1924, in which he said: "We, the educators 
of Mexico, in our attempt to avoid fanaticism, have 
swung too far to the other extreme and made our educa- 
tion unrellgious. Now we recognize our mistake and are 
beginning to see that the only true education, that which 
forms fine and honorable character, is that which has a 
religious basis. We have seen in the lives of the students 
of Coleglo Palmore the demonstration of the fact that 
the education for which this school stands has for its 
basis not fanaticism of any sort but true religion." In 
1910, the governor of the State of Chihuahua said that 
he had followed the young people of the Palmore School 
as they had gone out Into the business world and that 
it gave him pleasure to say that they were trustworthy, 
good citizens and good home makers. In the Palmore 
they had developed characters that lift up a life and 
build up a nation and that he wished It to be known that 
if the school needed a friend, he was ready to respond.^ 
It takes years of patient, faithful building for an insti- 
tution to win such approval. It does not come without 
cost. Coleglo Palmore deserves these words of approval. 
The Institution represents twenty years of the life work 
of Miss Lizzie Wilson. The school was founded in 1891 . 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1911, page 335. 

Women and the Kingdom 161 

The site on which it was built was the gift of Dr. W. B. 
Palmore, of St. Louis. Miss Augusta Wilson, the first 
principal, was succeeded in 1894 by Miss Lizzie Wilson, 
who served until her death in 1916. During her admin- 
istration three thousand students were enrolled. In 
1900 the enrollment reached its highest point, five 
hundred and eighty-seven. 

Coleglo Palmore was closed during the revolution 
(1914—18), but was the first of the schools In that field to 
reopen in 1918. At that time Rev. J. P. Lancaster 
became principal, followed in 1920 by Miss Mary Mas- 
sey. Miss Emma Eldridge was principal from 1924 to 
1927, when she was succeeded by Miss M. Belle Markey. 

When the Cincinnati agreements to the redistribution 
of territory were effected, Coleglo Palmore became heir 
to a fine pleceof property In Chihuahua that had be- 
longed to the Congregatlonallsts. This was made the 
boys' dormitory for the Palmore School. In 1925 a 
beautiful new school building was completed on the old 
site; it was a Centenary gift. The historic original 
building, that had served for classrooms and dormitory, 
became the girls' dormitory. Miss Eldridge, In writing 
of the school, says: "The Ivy-covered walls and porches, 
shaded by honeysuckle and wisteria, the majestic ash 
and the spreading, fruit-laden fig trees, all lend an Inde- 
scribably beauty and homelike atmosphere to the place 
that enthralls the heart of every one who even for a 
few months calls it home." 

The new administration building has contributed 
greatly to the development of the work of the school 
during the last three or four years The student body 
In 1926 was four hundred and seventy-one. The course 
of study has been made to conform more strictly to the 

162 Women and the Kingdom 

requirements of the public school system and greater 
emphasis has been given to the language, history, and 
geography of Mexico. The school now offers a seven- 
year course in English and a six-year Spanish course 
followed by a three-year commercial course. Physical 
training has been developed as never before, and the 
spiritual life of the school has had unusual emphasis, 
owing to the fact that conformity to the State law, as 
recently interpreted, prevents Bible teaching in the pri- 
mary grades (the first six years) and makes necessary 
greater attention to this work in the upper grades. 
Special effort is made to have the dormitory life that of 
a real Christian home that will contribute to the up- 
building of Christian character. 

It is of interest that Francisco Villa, the noted Mexi- 
can revolutionary leader, has had two sons and two 
daughters enrolled as students in Palmore. 

T ^-^ ^ ii.r r. .. The story of Institute Mac- 

Instttuto MacDonell x^ ,, . ,., e ^ 

rw T,, , Donell is like a page from the 

Durango, Mexico . . r ^ ^ - • rr> 

history of the beginning of Prot- 
estantism. Probably no other institution of the South- 
ern Methodist Church has suffered more determined and 
continuous persecution from the Roman Catholics. The 
Board of Missions of the Presbyterian Church had ex- 
pected to open work in Durango and had sent Miss 
Kate MacFarrin to pioneer the work. Soon afterwards 
they decided to withdraw. The Mission Board of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, hearing of their 
decision, sent Rev. and Mrs. Robert W. MacDonell, in 
1885, to open work in that city. They found a small 
group of Mexican Protestants, the result of the faith 
and labors for twenty years of one Mexican woman, 
Dona Andrea Lopez, who had been converted as a result 

Women and the Kingdom 163 

of secretly reading Bible passages. Her life had been 
threatened again and again, but her zeal had not wa- 

Out of this little Protestant group the first Methodist 
Church was formed and the first girls' school established, 
in 1886, with Miss MacFarrin as principal; she had re- 
mained in Durango after her Board had withdrawn. In 
1889, on the death of Rev. Robert W. MacDonell, this 
school was adopted by the Woman's Board of Foreign 
Missions and called Institute MacDonell. Immediately 
the South Georgia Conference raised funds to purchase 
suitable property and to enlarge the program of the 
school. In 1893, Miss Ellie B. Tydings was appointed 
principal, though Miss MacFarrin remained in the facul- 
ty as co-principal and teacher till 1902. Miss Tydings 
continued as principal till 1910, when she was succeeded 
by Mrs. Nellie O'Bierne. From 1913 to 1920 the 
school was closed, owing to the Mexican revolution. 
Miss Tydings re-opened the school in the fall of 1920. 
Miss Mary E. Massey became principal in 1923, and 
Miss Myrtle Pollard served in that capacity for two 
years, beginning in 1925. Miss Eula Winn is now at 
the head of the school. 

A friend of the school writes this interesting account 
of the development of the plant: "Soon there was need 
for still more room, and a rambling Mexican building, 
centuries old which was at that time being used as a 
hotel, was purchased. It was said that at one time the 
building was a Roman Catholic convent, and its general 
structure and underground rooms and passages indicate 
that there is truth in the story, but for many years 
before being purchased for missionary work, it had been 
a hotel with its barroom, gambling hall, and cockpit. 

164 Women and the Kingdom 

One of the most interesting chapters in the history of 
Institute MacDonell is the transformation of this old 
building into an institution of learning. The barroom 
has become the living room of the boarding department; 
the cockpit is now the assembly hall; the liquor store- 
room is now the library, and in the wide doorway through 
which once passed the old stagecoach, then the only 
means of connection between Durango and the outside 
world, now enter boys and girls.* 

Concerning the persecution that the school has suf- 
fered, the following from two of Miss Tyding's reports 
will be of interest : "The archbishop sent out posters and 
handbills over the city and into surrounding towns de- 
nouncing our school and threatening with excommuni- 
cation any parents who sent their children to us. But, 
despite this opposition, children of many Roman Cath- 
olic families came." (1912). 

"Notwithstanding the fact that the priests go from 
home to home threatening the people whose children are 
in our school, and that last August a sermon was preached 
in the Cathedral telling the people it was their duty to 
burn MacDonell Institute, the parents continue to pat- 
ronize our school." (1922.) 

In spite of the opposition of the Roman Catholics, 
many of the leading educators of the State have in 
recent years spoken in the school chapel, and the Super- 
intendent of Public Instruction has been most friendly. 
In 1926, the school enrollment numbered three hundred 
and forty-nine. 

^ , . „ Parral is one of the stations that 

Colegio Progreso u ^u c ^u 

, ,, . was taken over by the Southern 

Parral, Mexico , , , , . r i ^ 

Methodists from the Congregation- 

allsts. It Is in the State of Chihuahua, eight hours' ride 

Women and the Kingdom 165 

from the city of Chihuahua, and is a strategic missionary 
center; is the gateway to that section in Northwest 
Mexico in which the Tahuamare Indians live, a tribe 
35,000 strong, who have yet to be reached for Christ, 
and for whom the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
has accepted the responsibility. It is interesting to know 
that Parral was the home of Francisco Villa. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, inherited 
from the Congregationllsts a small school which had 
been operating for thirty years, but was entirely with- 
out adequate equipment. During the long revolution- 
ary period from 1913-1920 a faithful Mexican teacher, 
Miss Maria Oaxaca, had held the school together. 
Rev. J. Thacker became presiding elder of this new dis- 
trict, and 1922 Miss Dora O'Lula Hanna was sent to 
take charge of the school. She was succeeded in 1923 
by Miss ElHe B. Tydings, and in 1926 Miss Eva D. 
Massey became principal. 

The old adobe building In which the school was 

housed soon proved entirely inadequate. A house was 

rented for the home of the missionaries and Mexican 

teachers, but the growth of the school to more than three 

hundred made new classroomsi essential. Finally, with 

the Week of Prayer offering, in 1924, and Centenary 

funds, a splendid piece of property, costing $35,000, was 


„, ^ ^. , , The great significance of the Ele- 

Elementary Girls' ^ , , . , , , 

„ . , . ^, mentary school m the development 

Schools in the ... , 

„ , . ^ of a new mission is nowhere more 

Belgian Congo i , • -j ^. • ^u 

-, . clearly m evidence than in the 

Congo Beige. The women entered 

Africa August 13, 1917, and in the ten years that have 

elapsed, elementary boarding schools for girls have been 

166 Women and the Kingdom 

opened at Wembo Nyama, Tunda, and Minga. The 
great need for the establishment of such schools is shown 
in the report of Miss Etta Lee Woolsey (Mrs. C. T. 
Shadel) written the year she reached the field (1917): 
"The intelligence of women is of so low an order that 
they cannot commit even one Bible verse to memory 
without the greatest difficulty. They have been, for so 
many years, the burden bearers and the slaves of men 
that they have little ambition to learn." 

The first girls* school was opened at Wembo Nyama 
in 1918 with one pupil. Miss Woolsey says: "On August 
1, 1918, the girls' school was opened with one little girl 
from Okitano, a neighboring village. We went over 
there to tell about the school, and this little girl said she 
wanted to come. When we spoke to her parent 's about 
it, they listened and without another word said umph! 
to me, signifying all right, and turning to the child said 
choka, which means go. The child turned and walked 
down the path without so much as one word of farewell 
to her parents or brothers or sisters. Her wearing ap- 
parel consisted of a thread around her waist which 
supported a tiny string of cloth in front and a bunch of 
leaves behind."* 

Soon eight little girls were enrolled. At first so few 
boarding pupils came to the school that free tuition, 
food, and clothes were offered, but each pupil was re- 
quired to do ten hours* work a week in the school garden 
or on the mission compound. As a part of her school 
work, each girl was required to make her own dress. 
They were taught sewing, cooking, gardening, and the 
making of peanut oil and starch. 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1918-19, page 

Women and the Kingdom 167 

At first the simplest type of building was erected for 
a school. In 1920 four additional rooms were added 
and a playground developed with swings, a merry-go- 
round, sliding boards, see-saws, and other equipment. 
In spite of these attractions the boarding department 
of the schools has grown very slowly. The African child 
is expected to marry and has no choice in the matter. 
Husbands and fathers feel free to take them out of 
school at any time. One worker writes: "Because of 
the custom of child marriage, it has been difficult to 
secure the regular attendance of girls. One little girl 
was redeemed by the missionaries through payment of 
nine brass crosses, which is equivalent to $5.40 (the cross 
is legal tender in wife buying). The day students have 
gradually increased ; in 1920 there were one hundred and 
thirty. Later, boys as well as girls were received as day 

The following report gives an idea of the meagerness 
of the equipment with which the missionaries work; 
"Interest has been decidedly increased by the addition 
of new studies and the use of slates and pencils, with an 
occasional lesson written on paper. The owner of a 
book or a notebook and a pencil is superior in the eyes 
of his comrades who own nothing. Every little scrap of 
blank paper, such as the inside of old envelopes or white 
wrapping paper, is eagerly received. If enough paper 
can be obtained the ingenious boy makes himself a note- 
book. One boy is the proud possessor of a first year 
French book, and he religiously brings it to Sunday 
school just because it is a book. One of our great needs 
is more material. ' ' ^ 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1918, page 110. 
*Ibid., 1919, page 426. 

168 Women and the Kingdom 

The Board of Missions. Woman's 

Sdtoobomthe V\ork. has been conducting, in re- 

« ^_ .___ -__:,._ C3enT vears. three elementary- schools 

for Mexican Children: the \'alley 
Institute for Girls, at Pharr. Tex.; a day school in El 
Paso; one at Magdalena. Mexico. 

The Valley Instiruie is open only to the most promis- 
ing Mexican girls. It \ras founded in 1920 by the Gen- 
eral Department of the Board of Missions, and was later, 
timmgli an eadiange. transferred to the Woman's Work. 
Sonne stod^its are from Mexico, but its chief work is 
among the giris of the Rio Grande Valley, many of whom 
are from Roman Catholic families. The school does 
high grade work and the coui^e conforms to the state 
schools. It had its first graduating class in 1926. One 
of the class, after further prepiaration. is planning to 
enter definite Chris rian ser\-ice. The school has a re- 
maikableof^KHtunic^' to influence the life of its students; 
fifty are oiroDed, and fort>--two of these are boarders. 

Mrs. J. W. Downs, in her report to the Board of 
Missioas in 1928, writes: "The Week of Prayer offering 
for 1927 is to be tised for enlarging the buildings at 
Valley Institute, a school for Mexican girls, located at 
Pharr, Tex. We hope to develop a school in which the 
outstanding Mexican girls, in the different communities 
in the Southwest, may receive training that will fit them 
for any r>"pe of work. We hope e5i>ecially to educate 
women who will be able to cooperate fully in putting on 
a Christian program among the Mexican people." 

The day schools at Magdalena. Sonora. Mexico, and 
at Juarez, across the river from El Paso, earn,- six years 
of work in Spanish ; the higher grades are conducted in 
English. These schools are popular even among the 

Women and the Kingdom 169 

cfaHdren of Roman Catholic homes; xbey ..- ^ i ^^' 

influence in the lives of the papOs. 

MacDonea French ,. I^e «ranbcfs of French people 

... . - , , live m the bavoas of Sootiieni Loo- 

yiunon School . . , . ' , «. , 

„ . laana, bavmg been cot on for ges- 

HouTTia, La, 

eratioiis f nnn the tide <tf American 

dvilizadon because of language and nis t nm i t . They 

have known nothing of American institiitioas. They 

have been in bondage to the ^nritnal auU ioii iy c: "Ji:-^ 

Roman Cathc^ic priesthood. They have kiio ii u ncLiizg 

of modem medicine, "resorting to devices as barbarous 

as any found in the heart ci Africa." The dcvetopnie--: 

of Christian woric among these peofrfe has been i.e 

largely to Miss Ella K. Hooper. Sie had gone ajr. : - z 

them as a teacher and came to realize their need c: 

Christian educatioa and social service ministry. As a 

result a commnnity center was opened in 1918. It soon 

became evident that a Chrbtian school was «***«■"« ial. 

In 1922, a building was cooifJeted with boanfing facS- 

ties fcH* girls and boys, it was givoi the name Mac- 

Doneil French Mission School, in honor of Mis. R. W. 

MacI>oneU, who as Ifome Mission Secretary woiked 

wich Miss Hoopo- in opening the Froich work. The 

school has a plant valued at $50,000 and is foH to 

capacity with boys and giris who would otherwise have 

no opp<wtmiity for Christian educaricm. These boys 

and giris are the hope for the Americanization and 

ChrisdanianizatKMi of this section of our coonlry. 

TheiL^Hebn ~ ^^;^ Wcrk h^s devel- 

imdustrM School 

in buildine uo the Kir^ < i 

170 Women and the Kingdom 

One of these is the Mary Helm Industrial School, of 
Songdo, Korea. It is an institution for young widows 
and is the only one of its kind in the Church. It was 
established in 1910 at the suggestion of Baron T. H. 
Yun. The plan was that it should be conducted by the 
wives of the missionaries; therefore it was located near 
their homes in order to make their volunteer service 
possible. Mrs. Willard G. Cram was the founder of the 
Mary Helm School, giving much time to this work. 

The school met a real need and its growth was rapid; 
in 1914 twenty-nine women were enrolled and by 1917 
there were seventy. Permanent provision was made for 
the school by erecting a simple classroom building, and 
a Korean style dormitory, to accommodate sixty pupils. 
The course of study included Bible, Japanese, music, 
sewing, washing, dyeing, flower making, embroidery, 
knitting, and crocheting as well as the primary branches. 
The Mary Helm School is adjacent to the Holston In- 
stitute and, in 1918, by provision of Japanese law, the 
school was required to become the Industrial Depart- 
ment of Holston. By 1922 It was again given an inde- 
pendent status, which it still retains. In 1925 the en- 
rollment was one hundred and ninety-three, one-third 
of this number living in the dormitory. Mary Helm 
students are known everywhere for their strong Chris- 
tian character; because of their maturity and ability 
they find no difficulty in securing opportunities for 
Christian service. Many have become successful teach- 
ers. In recent years Miss Ida L. Hanklns, of the North 
Carolina Conference, has devoted herself to this school 
and Is responsible In large measure for Its marked suc- 

Women and the Kingdom 171 

Th V ' ' K ^" thinking of the Virginia K. 

_, * Johnson Home and School, there 

Johnson Home '' . . . , . . , . ^ 

. _ . , rises before one s vision the picture of 

and School , r i i- li, xt 

^ „ _, a wonderful personality. Mrs. Vir- 

Dallas, Tex. . . .^ ^ ,^ . ■' . , , 

ginia K. Johnson, its founder, has 

given thought and prayer, and service to this insti- 
tution for the past thirty- five years. In 1893 while 
Mrs. Johnson was president of the King's Daughters 
in Dallas, Tex., she came in contact with a fallen 
woman, disheartened and discouraged, who wished to 
escape her misery and find a better way of living. In 
vain Mrs. Johnson tried to find a place for her in Texas 
and in other States where she would be helped and 
redeemed. She then opened a little two-room cottage 
as a refuge for this woman and others who needed help. 
When the Parsonage and Heme Mission Society of 
the North Texas Conference met in Gainesville, Tex. 
(1895), she went before it urging the establishment 
of an institution for this specific type of work. The 
result was a vote of the Conference to erect a building, 
on condition that a lot be secured. Two years later Mrs. 
Ann Browder Cunningham, of DaHas, gave two blocks 
of land, and a building was erected at a cost of $5,000; 
the school was named in honor of Mrs. Cunningham. 

The North Texas Conference carried on the work 
until 1911 when the Woman's Missionary Council as- 
sumed responsibility for the institution, securing a site 
in Oak CliflF and erecting an adequate building, at a cost 
of $75,000. At this time the name of the institution was 
changed to Virginia K. Johnson, thus honoring its 

Since the door of the little two-room cottage was 
opened in 1§93, three thousand girls between the ages of 

172 Women and the Kingdom 

thirteen and nineteen have been admitted, kept two 
years, and given industrial, literary, and religious train- 
ing; eighty-five per cent of these have gone out able to 
meet life successfully. More than twelve hundred babies 
have been born in this home and have been adopted 
into homes where they have had a chance to grow up 
to successful manhood and womanhood. The work 
done at Virginia Johnson Home and School has been 
distinctive in requiring every young woman to remain 
two years. This time has been used in giving classroom 
and practical instruction to fit the girls to be self-sup- 
porting. There have been great differences in the types 
of young women who have entered; therefore Individual 
teaching has been necessary, but the results have justi- 
fied this outlay of time and effort. 

Is it any wonder that those who have received the 
benefits of this institution call the great Christian 
woman who founded it and dedicated her life to it Saint 
Virginia? The King's Messenger, the ofificial organ of 
the institution, has endeared itself to those who have 
loved the cause it has espoused and its editor, the found- 
er of the school. 

fwi, XT .-.• r. 1. . The purpose of the Vashti School 

The Vashti School • t^, n /- • ^ t • u 

^, .„ ^ m Ihomasville, Ga., is to furnish 

Thomasville, Ga. , . ' ' , . , 

home protection and a practical 

Christian education for dependent girls of good char- 
acter between the ages of ten and eighteen. The 
conception that found embodiment in the school was 
born in the mind of Deaconess Annie Heath, who, as 
she worked in Thomasville with those whose lives were 
already broken, realized that the cause of failure, in 
most cases, was the lack of adequate home training and 
protection. She dreamed of an institution, such as 

Women and the Kingdom t73 

Vashtl, which should do preventive work. In 1902, Mr. 
W. P. Blasingame, of Thomasville, gave a home and 
four acres of land, situated ideally, for the beginning of 
such an institution. By 1921 Vashti, from its humble 
beginning, had developed into an institution with sixty- 
five acres of land and a plant valued at $200,000. 

The growth of Vashti has been gradual; the first year 
eighteen girls were enrolled, and within three years the 
school had outgrown its original quarters. By 1908 it 
moved into a building, formerly a tobacco factory, which 
was repaired and adapted to serve as home and school. 
In 1920 this building was completely remodeled and 
became the educational-administration unit of the en- 
larged plant. New heating, lighting, and plumbing 
were installed and a new laundry built. In 1921 a 
dormitory for the older girls, and a dining hall were 
added. In 1926 an industrial arts building was com- 
pleted. Gradually the plant has grown, keeping pace 
with the ever-developing need and opportunity. Vashti 
stands for a practical education; the girls are taught 
everything necessary to become excellent home makers. 
They not only have experience in the home itself but 
are taught the care of the yard, including the cultivation 
of flowers. They learn to do all kinds of sewing and 
cooking. Instructions are given in ways to beautify the 

Recreational life is not neglected ; there is a fine swim- 
ming pool and a well-equipped playground. The school 
has a camp to which the girls go in summer. Vashti 
considers that its chief task is molding character, ac- 
cording to the principles of Jesus Christ. Vashti has 
had two great leaders. Prof. C. C. Bishop, who was 
superintendent till 1919, and Miss Charlotte DyejWhq 

174 Women and the Kingdom 

serves at the present time. There were (in 1927) one 
hundred and seventeen girls in the school receiving the 
benefit of training. The faculty consisted of fifteen 
members, eight of whom were graduates of Scarritt Col- 
lege for Christian Workers. The curriculum covers all 
grades, including two years of high school. Many of the 
girls, on leaving the school, establish homes of their own. 
Some enter schools for higher education. A number 
have become trained nurses. 

fTit. >^ t. ^ J TheMoka Garden Embroidery 

The Moka Garden ,,. . ,,.,,. r> 

_, , . . ,-. . Mission was established in Soo- 

Embroidery Mission . .^r^nu ■\/f \t' 

„ . _.. chow, China, in 1899 by Miss Vir- 

Soochow, China ..... , ,,. r. . 
ginia Atkinson and Miss Susie 

Williams. The object was to provide away to reach the 
mothers and sisters of the boys in the West Soochow boy 
schools. The suggestion of the project came from the 
boys. Most of the women of Soochow are skilled in em- 
broidery. During the monarchial period it was in this 
city that the rich costumes for the emperor and his peo- 
ple were made. The original plan was to establish an in- 
dustrial school for those who wished to be taught em- 
broidery under skilled Chinese instructors, and also re- 
ceive instruction in the elementary branches and the Bi- 
ble. At first the school was conducted in a rented Chi- 
nese building, but in 1911 it acquired a new home within 
the compound of the Davidson Girls' School. It was 
made possible by the North Alabama Conference, and 
was called the Moka Garden Embroidery Mission. The 
following year Miss Frances Burkhead, of the North Car- 
olina Conference, became its superintendent. Misses 
Mary Culler White, Emma Service Lester, Dora Otis, 
Nina Stallings, Elizabeth Claiborne, and Mary Tarrant 
have all served in some capacity in this institution. 

Women and the Kingdom 175 

The Moka Garden Embroidery Mission employs from 
seventy-five to one hundred and fifty women. Its repu- 
tation is known afar. Orders for embroidery come from 
various parts of the world; many come from Australia. 
For a time previous to the World War an agency was 
maintained in the United States. While they work, the 
Bible women go from frame to frame teaching the women 
the Bible and other subjects. There is a time set aside 
each day for chapel service. Mrs. Julia Gaither gave 
her last years in China to this work. 

With the cooperation of the Woman's Missionary So- 
ciety, public baths have been opened in connection with 
the Embroidery Mission. Chinese homes not being 
heated, it is difficult to secure proper conditions for 
bathing. The Embroidery Mission provides hot water 
and warm rooms for bathing and dressing. This has 
been a great blessing not only to the women of the Em- 
broidery Mission, but to the community as well. Be- 
cause of the unsettled condition during the recent 
Nationalistic Movement, the women have been allowed 
to embroider in their own homes, thus avoiding the 
dangers of the street. 

, . . . From 1875 to 1878 Miss Lochie Rankin 

Methvtn , , • ^-x t^ , . i 

-. . and her sister Dora Rankm, were teachers 

isoo 190Q at HopeAcademy, Choctaw Nation, Indian 
Territory. It was a school operated by the 
General Board of Missions. While there teaching the 
Indians, Miss Lochie Rankin accepted the call to China. 
The earliest records tell of the opening of work (about 
1880) among the blanket Indians in Sasakwa, Indian 
Territory. It had been undertaken upon the recom- 
mendation of Bishop Pierce. In 1881 this work was 
moved from Sasakwa to Muskogee, where Harrell Inter- 

176 Women and the Kingdom 

national Institute was established under the superin- 
tendency of Rev. and Mrs. T. F. Brewer. After a num- 
ber of successful years, Harrell Institute, which had be- 
come Spaulding College, was turned over to the General 
Board of Missions, and the Woman's Board of Foreign 
Missions enterprised work farther west at Anadarko 
with Rev. J. J. Methvin in charge. 

This new school, Methvin Institute, was opened in 
1890 on an Indian reservation. By 1901 white settlers 
were allowed to enter and the problems of the school 
became more complex. The report of that year stated 
that the enrollment was one hundred Indians and 
seventy-five white children. The property of the school 
consisted of one hundred and sixty acres bordering on 
the south side of the town of Anadarko. This Industrial 
school soon outgrew its buildings and its equipment. In 
1905 Miss Ida Swanson became principal and Rev. J. J. 
Methvin was placed in charge of the school farm. That 
year in his report to the Board he spoke of having se- 
cured the full title to the one hundred and sixty acres. ^ 
In 1907 Rev. C. F. Mitchell became superintendent and 
two years later the school was closed. The records 
state: "After careful investigation, the boarding school, 
Methvin Institute at Anadarko, was closed a year ago 
and a day school for Indians opened at Mount Scott 
with a lady teacher in charge. The government schools, 
finely equipped, have in some measure supplied the needs 
in many parts of Oklahoma and the fact that the Indians 
are not very willing to send the children away from 
home to a boarding school caused the Women's Board 

^Report, 1905-06, page 101 

Women and the Kingdom 177 

to abandon Methvin Institute and make some appro- 
priadon for day schools."* 

Since the closing of Methvin Institute, the property 
of the school in Anadarko has been held by the Board 
of Missions, Woman's Work. For a time heavy taxes 
were paid, but finally the undesirable portions of the 
one hundred and sixty acre tract were sold and new 
property acquired so that there remains (in 1928) in 
Anadarko, a tract of land free from government tax- 
ation for the use and benefit of Indian work. 

Short-Term Bible Schools for Adults in Korea 
The Korea Mission has carried on through the years 
a type of work which is not found in the other Mission 
fields. They have worked out a plan for Bible schools 
or classes, which are held for two or three months each 
winter. These are for the training of Bible Women and 
for the preparation of women for Church membership. It 
requires eight years for the Bible women to complete 
the course in these schools; until recently they have had 
no other provision for training. These schools ofifer to 
all Christian women an opportunity to study the Bible, 
and also the rudiments of an education. They have 
been unique in that large numbers of women have left 
their homes and families for three months each year 
in order to become pupils. They bring their rice and 
fuel while the Mission provides room and lodging. The 
Christians of the cities where the schools are held often 
provide the kimchi (pickled cabbage) , which is essential 
to a Korean meal. So eager are women to attend these 
schools that they often walk fifty miles for this privilege. 
At first the courses consisted largely of reading lessons 

^Report, 1908-09, page 118. 

178 Women and the Kingdom 

and Bible study, but gradually many other subjects 
were included, such as history, geography, hygiene, baby 
welfare, music ,and even simplified Church history. 
Evening evangelistic services have always been an out- 
standing feature and have been seasons of great spiritual 
blessing. Usually such schools have drawn on all the 
missionary forces of the community to serve as teachers. 
Native pastors also have been used on the teaching staff. 
During the school session the women have been required 
to do personal work in the homes. Returning to their 
communities they become teachers of those who have 
not had their privilege. Groups for Bible study are 
organized in various congregations and an eight-year 
course mapped out as a guide. 

These Bible Institutes or Schools are held in each of 
the districts. The Bible Institute in Wonsan District 
is called Alice Cobb, in honor of Mrs. J. B. Cobb. The 
dormitory was the gift of the South Georgia Conference. 
For years this work has been under the care of Miss 
Kate Cooper, of the North Georiga Conference. Practi- 
cally all the Bible Women — twenty or more — of this 
district, have had their training in this way. The city 
evangelistic center building, a gift of the Centenary, 
has added greatly to the equipment for the institute 
meetings. The Institute in Songdo bears the name of 
Joy Hardie; the money for this dormitory was also a 
gift of South Georgia Conference. The Songdo City 
Evangelistic Center is now the headquarters for the 
class work. 

The Bible Institute, in Seoul, has always been inter- 
denominational, the Presbyterians, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, and Methodist Episcopal Church, South, unit- 
ing in this work. For a long time it has been held in one 

Women and the Kingdom 179 

of the largest Presbyterian churches. The dormitory 
facilities were quite inadequate, but since the develop- 
ment of the union evangelistic center in Seoul, the school 
is housed there making an enlarged program possible. 

The Bible School in Choon Chun was begun years ago 
by Miss Laura V. Edwards and Miss Alice Dean Noyes. 
It has never had its own dormitory or classrooms, but 
in recen t years has been privileged to use the dormitories 
built for a similar institute for men. 

The Korea mission, in this original, unique way, is 
solving its problems of leadership training and of edu- 
cating the women of the Church, most of whom have 
never had the privilege of an education. This work has 
always been one of the strong arms of the evangelistic 



J H ct' Foreign missionary work was the first 

distinctly Christian service, in a profes- 
sional way, that was opened to the women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South. At that time there 
was nothing comparable to it in the Church at home. 
The greatness of the innovation in sending single women 
to the ends of the earth, as salaried workers, can hardly 
be appreciated to-day. Many asked what these 
women could do and were opposed to their going because 
the question could not be answered satisfactorily. 
Woman's Work for Woman became the slogan, but it re- 
mained for those sent to discover how they might serve. 
It was natural that they should attempt that which 
they knew how to do — namely, teaching little children. 
There was another reason why they started with the 
children; they were available as objects of their minis- 
trations, eager, ready, and needing instruction. Women 
were secluded, and the missionary had little access to 
them except as she gained it through the children. 

There were those, however, called into missionary 
service, who did not feel that their greatest gift was in 
teaching. They were not satisfied to work inside the 
schoolroom. Their hearts went out to the hundreds of 
women who were shut up in the confines of the home. 
They were determined to reach them by a more direct 
way, if possible. They could not preach, and the women 
would not have come to hear them if they had, but there 
was nothing to prevent their going from home to home, 

Women and the Kingdom 181 

seeking to win the women for Christ. Soon the evan- 
gelistic missionaries came to be as important to the 
Mission as were the educational missionaries. The 
term evangelistic was given to this group to differentiate 
it from the educational workers. This has been a de- 
cided disadvantage because of the false impression that 
educational workers, also, are not an evangelistic force 
on the mission field. They are, indeed, one of the great- 
est evangelizing forces, and the schools are the only 
agences by which leadership for the evangelistic work 
may be trained. 

District Evangelistic Work in China and Korea 

District itineration was the usual form of evangelistic 
work by women missionaries in the early days of mis- 
sions. Responsibility for the evangelization of women 
in large areas, often as large as an entire Conference in 
the United States, was given to one worker. China is 
a land of canals, especially that par t of China in which the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, is at work. For 
that reason the small houseboat gradually became an 
essential piece of equipment. For weeks at a time the 
evangelistic workers ate and slept on their little boats, as 
they itinerated from village to village. Arriving at a 
village they would meet the Christian women, instruct 
them in reading and Bible study, and hold evangelistic 
meetings. They often found openings for day schools, 
aiding in their establishment and supervision. In later 
years, when Chinese women began to work in missionary 
societies, the evangelistic missionary assisted in their 
organization and development, becoming practically dis- 
trict secretaries. 

In Korea, until quite recently, the evangelistic mis- 

182 Women and the Kingdom 

sionaries traveled on pack ponies. They went from vil- 
lage to village carrying their bedding and food, as they 
sought to reach the Korean women with the gospel of 
Christ. The work was essentially the same in Korea 
and China; in rural sections of both countries, the people 
live in small villages. Although these women mission- 
aries often went from place to place entirly alone, no 
harm has ever come to any of them. 

Not all the itinerating work has been on the districts; 
some have gone from home to home in the cities, visit- 
ing and instructing the women. 

In all of this evangelistic work the Bible woman has 
been outstanding. The missionaries are helpless with- 
out the aid of women who know the language and the 
method of approach to the oriental home. Miss Lochie 
Rankin, in 1879, wrote: " The work of the Bible women is 
to visit from home to home and to read and explain the 
Scriptures to the women ; in the East women are almost 
inaccessible to the gospel by any other method. When 
a number of homes have been visited, appointments are 
made for meeting the female inmates who manifest an 
interest in general conversation and prayer. From these 
meetings they may be drawn by degrees to the places 
of preaching." * Mrs. J. W. Lambuth spoke often of her 
two Bible women and other Chinese women who helped 
her in teaching and visiting. Few will forget Mo Ta Ta, 
the name of her beloved Bible woman of early days. In 
1883, Mrs. Lambuth wrote: "Two foreign missionary 
women are needed to go out with the two native Bible 
women, already at work, throughout the Shanghai Dis- 
trict to give their whole time to the Bible work, such as 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Society, 1879. 

Women and the Kingdom 183 

visiting families and cultivating workers. They should 
go by houseboat to the country towns and villages."* 
It would be impossible to tell the story of the hundreds 
of Christian women in Korea and China who grasped the 
opportunity to secure an education, and who lerned to 
comprehend so perfectly the Christian religion that they 
were eager to be sent out to share it with non-Christian 
women. These Bible women were the first to unite with 
the missionaries in work and fellowship, thus forming 
the nucleus of a world sisterhood. 

As the number of Bible women increased, small homes 
were provided for them, where they could live in different 
parts of the district among the women whom they would 
lead to Christ. Miss Bess Combs wrote, in 1920, of the 
Sungkiang District; "There are six Bible women and 
six Bible women's homes in this district. These Bible 
women are placed in the principal city on each circuit 
and are responsible for the woman's work at that point 
and in the surrounding country. The Bible woman's 
life is the highest testimony for Christ among the wom- 
en." The need of Bible women becomes evident when 
one reads the reports of Miss Kate Cooper, of the Won- 
san Dsitrict. She supervises the work of women and 
girls of ninety-five Churches, in seven hundred villages 
with 300,000 people. She had as her helpers in 1923 
twenty-five Bible women. Surely, the Bible woman's 
work is an integral part of the achievements of the past 
fifty years. 

There are missionaries in China and Korea who will 
always be outstanding because of their evangelistic 
work. Among them are: Miss Virginia Atkinson, Miss 
Alice G. Waters, Miss [Mary Culler White, Miss Bess 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Society, 1883. 

184 Women and the Kingdom 

Combs, Miss Irene King, Miss Maggie J. Rogers, Miss 
Alice Green, Miss Cordelia Erwin, Miss Laura V. Ed- 
wards, Miss Carrie Una Jackson, Miss Bertha A, Smith, 
and Miss Kate Cooper. 

Rural Evangelistic Work in the United States 

In more recent years the rural worker, in the United 
States, has developed a form of work which is strikingly 
similar to that of the itinerating evangelistic worker in 
other fields. Such workers do not travel on pack ponies 
nor on houseboats, but Ford cars serve their purpose. In 
the North Arkansas, North Mississippi, and North 
Georgia Conferences, rural work has been recently de- 
veloped. These workers assist the pastors on their 
circuits. Some of them change their place of residence, 
from time to time, that they may become acquainted 
with the people in the different communities. One 
worker wrote: "I have ridden in wagons, and on horse- 
back, and on muleback, have hiked, and have had my 
first experience riding on a wagon loaded with cotton. 
The missionary societies have gradually furnished sup- 
plies, such as literature. Bibles, Testaments, lamps, 
first-aid kits, sheets, pillow cases, toothbrushes, soap, and 
toys." Another rural worker reports that she has spent 
a week in each of ten districts, serving about twenty 
Churches per week. In many of the rural centers, Daily 
Vacation Bible Schools are organized and teacher-train- 
ing classes conducted. In the North Mississippi Con- 
ference a circulating library of three hundred volumes 
was made available. Five Rural Boards of Missions 
have been organized to help plan and supervise rural 
work. Miss Bert Winters and Miss Minnie Lee Eidson 
have pioneered in this type of service. Surely the itiner- 

Women and the Kingdom 185 

a ting workers at home and abroad can find much in 
common as they seek to win for Christ those who can- 
not be reached by regular Church processes. 

Growth of City Mission Work in the United States 

^ . In 1890, by the action of the General 

_. , ^ Conference, home missions was added 

Development , ., ,. , r • r 

to parsonage buildmg as the function of 

the missionary society working in the United States. 
Many auxiliaries Immediately became active, engaging 
in forms of service in their home community. Auxiliaries 
in the larger cities became interested in city mission 
work. Even before this authorization many auxiliaries 
had been active. In fact, their activity was one of the 
factors that had brought about the demand for a change 
in the organization. Miss Luclnda B. Helm, General 
Secretary of the Parsonage and Home Mission Society, 
who had been eager for this enlarged program, im- 
mediately Interested herself In its development. Just 
three years after this authorization, under the auspices 
of the Central Committee, a convention was called In 
St. Louis to consider city mission work. Dr. Walter 
Lambuth gave a great address on City Evangelization 
that stirred the hearts of the women. The next year, 
he again apoke on the same subject in New Orleans at 
the annual meeting of the Parsonage and Home Mission 
Society. After the St. Louis Convention, Miss Luclnda 
B. Helm visited Atlanta, St. Louis, and Nashville In the 
interest of city missions, and In these cities beginnings 
of organizations were made. As a result of this Increas- 
ing interest the General Conference of 1894 provided 
for the authorization of City Mission Boards. In that 
year Miss Helm was succeeded by Mrs. R. K. Hargrove 

186 Women and the Kingdom 

as general secretary. During her secretaryship, from 
1894-1901 , the interest in city mission work showed signs 
of progress. In her report to the Woman's Board of 
Home Missions in 1899 she wrote: "City mission work 
is becoming more imperative and complex. We need 
the fullest information about what is being done in 
other places and should study the underlying needs and 
the special conditions of our cities if we want to develop 
a wise policy and use economy both of means and agents 
and insure the best and most permanent results. In 
city mission work prevention is better than cure, and 
the greatest energy should be expended upon shaping 
helpless childhood and assisting ignorant motherhood to 
a better discharge of duty." ^ 

There was steady development in interest, for In 1900 
Mrs. Hargrove again reported: "City mission work has 
been carried on in a number of cities, and it should be 
inaugurated in many others. All the city mission work 
should be immediately under the supervision of the 
Board, as are the other departments. The city mis- 
sionaries employed should receive special training, pre- 
sent their testimonials to the Board as teachers do, and 
should be paid by the general treasurer. The cities em- 
ploying missionaries should agree with the Board and 
pay monthly, into the general treasury, a stipulated sum 
for their support." ^ 

The years 1897 to 1900 may well be termed the City 
Missionary Period, for it was during this time that the 
city boards came into existence and employed women 
to serve as city missionaries. These women went from 

^Annual Report, Woman's Home Mission Society, 1899, page 29. 
nbid., 1900, page 28. 

Women and the Kingdom 187 

house to house, visiting, and became literally angels of 
mercy in many of the poorer sections standing in need 
of their ministry. By 1900 city mission work had been 
begun in a number of cities; Misses Emma and Tiny 
Tucker served in Nashville, Mrs. L. Meekin in New 
Orleans, Miss Elizabeth Streater in Kansas City, and 
Miss Mattie Wright in Waco. 

It was during this initial period in the development 
of city missions that Mrs. R. W. MacDonell, in 1900, 
came into the general secretaryship. She inaugurated 
the settlement, and the foundations laid by her were 
built upon by Mrs. J. W. Downs and Mrs. J. H. McCoy, 
her successors. In Mrs. MacDonell's first report as 
General Secretary she wrote: "What countless oppor- 
tunities are open through this avenue for the extension 
of God's Kingdom in our Southland! Twelve centers 
are enterprising these missions, including in their activi- 
ties kindergartens, house-to-house visitation, industrial 
schools, and rescue work. Glad notes of victory are 
sounded as our city missions report their work and a 
glorious harvest awaits the Church as a result of these 
efforts. This line of work must be emphasised in our 
Conferences, and a chain of city missions must gird our 
whole section. The masses need the individuals, and 
by this organized effort they are brought together." ^ 

It is not surprising that the women turned their 
attention to a trained missionary staff for this work; 
the year 1902 saw the Deaconess Movement launched. 
Miss Mattie M. Wright, Miss Amy Rice, Miss Annie 
Heath, Miss Elizabeth R. Davis, Miss Anabel Weigle, 
and Miss Elizabeth Taylor were consecrated the follow- 

^Annual Report, Woman's Home Mission Society, 1901, page 7. 

188 Women and the Kingdom 

ing year. In 1903 the Scarritt Bible and Training School 
opened a Department of Sociology for training such 
workers. The same year the first settlement house was 
organized in Nashville with Miss Minerva Clyce (Mrs. 
McCulloch) as head resident. A few months later the 
Dallas Settlement House was opened, with Miss Estelle 
Haskin as head resident. In Atlanta a similar work 
was begun by Miss Rosa Lowe. By 1904 there were 
seven settlement houses. In 1907 the name was 
changed to Wesley House. 

This change of name was not without great signifi- 
cance in the development of the city mission work. 
There was more involved than seemed evident, at first. 
The change came as a result of very serious discussion 
and consideration. It was the time when the social 
settlements of the large cities of the North and East 
had reached their high-water mark. The Church was 
not aware of its own social mission. Social-minded 
citizens, finding that they could not minister to com- 
munity needs through the organized Church, had set 
up separate institutions to supplement, as it were, that 
which the Church was doing. Groups of advantaged 
men and women were going down to live among the 
poor and share their life. Not intending to overstep the 
Church or rival it, no emphasis was placed upon religion. 
Denominations were sometimes felt to be a bar to the 
fellowship that they sought with all men, regardless of 
faith. It was the day when the work of Arnold Toynbee 
in London, and of Jane Addams and Graham Taylor 
in Chicago, was being discussed everywhere, especially 
in Church circles. 

All this had a bearing upon the settlement work of 
th^ Woman's Home Mission Society. Leaders of the 

Women and the Kingdom 189 

Church began to fear the word settlement which to them 
had a connotation of something non-evangelical and even 
non- Christian. Meanwhile a new emphasis was being 
placed upon the social teachings of Jesus. The works 
of Rauschenbusch and Shailer Mathews stirred Church 
leaders. There was a determination to claim the whole 
of man and the entire community for Jesus Christ. The 
women of the Southern Methodist Church were in the 
forefront of this advance movement. They stood for 
this fuller interpretation of the gospel message. Lest 
there be any misunderstanding, they decided to call 
their settlements Wesley Houses, so that there would be 
no doubt of their distinctly religious character. Because 
Graham Taylor had always kept the Christian emphasis 
in The Commons, he was the honored guest at the Home 
Mission Board meeting in Nashville in 1909. He ad- 
dressed the Board on the timely subject: Social Training 
for Religious Service. The words he uttered stamped 
themselves on the thinking and future policies of the 
women. "Nothing is so destructive," said he, "to 
religion and to human life as detachment from each 
other, because religion is life and life is religion — sin is 
detachment from God and one's fellows and holy ideals. 
Business must be turned inco brotherhood, industry into 
providence, and money into sacrament. . . . Let us 
. stand for re-attachment against detachment." ^ These 
jwere great creative hours in the history of the Woman's 
Board of Home Missions. 

^Annual Report, Woman's Board of Home Missions, 1909, page 

190 Women and the Kingdom 

W.7 .- • r. -^ During this period the entire coun- 

Work tn Foreign , . . . . r -, ^ 

. _ , , ^ try was thinking in terms of the for' 

and Polyglot / ° , _ . -^ , 

^ .^. eigner tn our midst. It was in the 

Comniuntttes , , . , . . 

days when the tide of immigration to 

America was rapidly increasing and there seemed to be 
no limit upon the number who might ultimately settle 
in American cities. They were pouring in not only from 
Northern but from Southern Europe. The quota law 
had not been thought about in those days. The ports 
of entry were wide open. Much of the settlement work 
in Northern and Bastern cities had been started in 
foreign communities. Leaders of the Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, visited these centers. 

Very few of the immigrants were coming to the South, 
yet there was a rising fear lest more would come and a 
feeling that preparation should be made to face a future 
invasion. Attention was naturally focused upon certain 
foreign groups, such as the Cubans in Florida, the 
Austrians in the oyster canneries at Biloxi, the French 
and Italians in New Orleans, and the Mexicans, who had 
found their way across the Rio Grande into the largest 
cities of Texas. There were also Japanese, Koreans, and 
Mexicans in the territory of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, on the Pacific Coast. During Mrs. R. 
K. Hargrove's administration, the attention of the 
women had been directed to this field. Then, too, there 
was a port of entry in the South at Galveston, that de- 
manded the special attention of the Church. Kansas 
City had received already a large number of Sicilian 
Italians so that its North End had become Little Italy. 
This foreign problem made a tremendous home mission 
appeal to those who, in the early days, were seeking the 
largest fields of service. 

Women and the Kingdom 191 

By 1897 the work among the Cubans in Tampa, at 
Ybor City, and West Tampa had been begun. It took 
the form of little day schools which later became settle- 
ments. About the same time schools were opened for 
Orientals on the Pacific Coast. By 1903 Kansas City 
had opened a work with Italians; this soon became the 
great Institutional Church. Mrs. L. Meekin was al- 
ready at work visiting among Italian groups in New 
Orleans. It was not long before work had been begun : at 
Ensley, Ala., with Italians; at St. Mark's in New 
Orleans among Italians; at Ybor City, Tampa, among 
Italians; at San Antonio, Houston, Thurber, and Dallas, 
with Mexicans; at St. Joseph among Slavic people; at 
Biloxi, among Austrians; in Los Angeles among Mexi- 
cans. Later work was opened in a Japanese colony at 
Terry, Tex. 

Certain names will always be associated with the work 
carried on in these foreign communities: Rev. C. F. Reid, 
and later Mr. and Mrs. William Acton, on the Pacific 
Coast; the Rev. J. E. Reif Schneider, port missionary, 
at Galveston; Miss Dorothy Crim, with the Italians at 
Ensley, Ala.; Miss Frances Scott, with the Slavs, St. 
Joseph; Miss May Lockard and Mrs. E. L. Souby, with 
the Italians in Kansas City; Miss Eugenia Smith, with 
the Mexicans at Thurber and Dallas; Miss Mary Bruce, 
with the Italians and Mrs. Rosa Valdez, with the 
Cubans, at Tampa; and Miss Margaret Ragland, with 
the Italians in New Orleans. These workers sought as 
faithfully to learn the languages of the people among 
whom they worked as if they had been sent to foreign 
fields. Many types of work were carried on in the 
Americanizing and Christianizing process, but the need 
of the mother heart in these communities called for the 

192 Women and the Kingdom 

Wesley House where the workers should live and share 
the life of the people. 

„, . Another factor, entering into the 

Work among . . . . f , 

r. ^,. ». o •-• ^ Situation which confronted the wom- 
Engltsh-Speakmg r .u o j r tt tvt- • 

^ .^. en oi the Board of Home Missions, 

Communities . . ,, , , . . , 

was the rapidly developing indus- 
tries of the South, creating new problems for that section 
of the country. Chief among the Industrial plants was 
the cotton mill. As the women began to seek facts con- 
cerning situations in these centers they found that very 
few had been published. There was little to help in this 
study. A pamphlet written by Dr. Nelson, Home Mission 
Secretary of the Board of Missions, was the only piece 
of available literature ; it was read again and again. The 
Atlanta City Mission Board was the first to open work 
in a mill community; numbers of others followed in 
quick succession. 

It was not the cotton mill or industrial community 
only that made Its appeal, but also the down-town slum 
areas of the large cities, where all the problems of man- 
kind seem to focalize. As early as 1903 the St. Louis 
City Mission Board concentrated its efforts at Sloan 
Missiouj which later developed Into the great Institution 
known as Kingdom House. The names of Deaconess 
Mattie Wright and Deaconess Helen Gibson will always 
be associated with the work In St. Louis. This was the 
first Institutional church in the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. At this time Wesley Houses were being 
developed at Augusta, Ga., Louisville, Ky., Houston, 
Tex., Mobile, Ala., Rome, Ga., and Birmingham, Ala. 
By 1904 seventeen city boards had been organized, and 
there was an insistent call for additional workers to 
enter open doors of opportunity. At that time there 

Women and the Kingdom 193 

were only eleven workers serving who had studied at 
Scarritt Bible and Training School. 

To-day, in addition to the cities already mentioned, 
work is found in Columbia, S. C, Mobile, Ala., Dan- 
ville, Va., Knoxville, Tenn., Richmond, Va., Meridi- 
an, Miss., Spartanburg and Orangeburg, S. C, Char- 
lotte, N. C, Montgomery, Ala., Spindale, N. C, 
Baltimore, Md., Chattanooga, Tenn., San Fransisco, 
Calif., Memphis, Tenn., Roanoke and Portsmouth, 
Va., Oklahoma City, Okla., and Murfreesboro, Tenn. 
Truly the chain of city mission enterprises, which Mrs. 
R. W. MacDonell prophesied should gird the Southland, 
has become a reality. 

„, , . , ^, It seems strange that the neg- 

Work with Negroes , , _ ^ f .,..*' 

„ ,,, ^, lected JNegro sections oi the cities 

Bethlehem Houses , _ , 

were not among the first appeals 

to which a response was made, but such was not the 
case. It required the gift of a life to awaken the women 
to this great obligation. At the first Council meeting 
held in St. Louis (in 1911) M iss Mary DeBardeleben pre- 
sented herself as a candidate for Negro work. Miss 
Estelle Haskin writes: "The members were deeply 
touched, pledging her in that sacred hour that they 
would hold the ropes, while she, their first representative, 
entered this most needy mission field of the South." ^ 

The first settlement for Negroes was opened by Miss 
De Bardeleben the following year at Augusta, Ga. It 
was called Galloway Hall, in honor of Bishop Galloway, 
because of his deep interest in the Negro. Bethlehem 
House was the name chosen later for settlements in 
Negro districts. The Bethlehem Center at Augusta has 

^Haskin, Sara Estelle, Women and Missions, page 221. 

194 Women and the Kingdom 

the advantage of being located near Paine College; the 
students serve as volunteer workers. When Miss Louise 
Young was dean of women at Paine College she gave 
the Center special supervision. Miss Mary Merriweather 
succeeded Miss De Bardeleben as head worker, giving 
a number of years in devoted service. 

One year later, the second Bethlehem House was 
opened at Nashville, Tenn. It was the enterprise of the 
faculty and students of the Methodist Training School. 
The work was at first carried on in the basement of a 
church. After one year a house was rented and Mrs. 
SalUe Hill Sawyer, Mother Sawyer, as she was known in 
the community, served as house mother from 1913- 
1918, when she passed away. Miss Estelle Haskin, the 
supervisor, pioneered the work and remained in charge 
until 1918. This center was developed as a cooperative 
enterprise, being closely affiliated with the Social Science 
Department of Fisk University. An inter-racial board 
was formed, composed of representatives from the 
Woman's Missionary Council, Fisk University, the 
Methodist Training School, and the city at large. This 
was one of the first experiments In Inter-raclal coopera- 
tion. The settlement serves as a training center for 
Fisk students specializing In social science. Miss Rosa 
Breeden succeeded Miss Haskin as supervisor. In her 
report to the Board she wrote: "In closing, we plead 
with you, dear missionary women, to open your hearts 
anew to the American Negro. Go to them In love. Do 
not do It in a condescending attitude. Christ did not 
come to us In a patronizing manner. Let us remember 
the spiritual value of the human soul, whether that life 
be under a white or black skin. We are our 'brother's 
keeper,' and when we go to the Father we must answer 

Women and the Kingdom 195 

when asked what we did for those black brothers who 
have lived so long beside us." By 1920 the Settlement 
was reaching six hundred and fifty-four families. In 
1922, Miss Martha Nutt became the supervisor, and a 
beautiful new building, the gift of the Centenary, was 
dedicated. Miss Nutt was succeeded in 1926 by Miss 
Margaret. Young. Mrs. J. W. Downs, in her report to 
the Board of Missions in 1927, said: " In addition to the 
community service, Bethlehem Center in Nashville is 
training four young women for Christian service. It 
also serves as a practice center for Fisk University and 
Scarritt College. We are looking forward to the strength- 
ening of the Training Department in order that we may 
have prepared workers for service among Negroes in 
both city and rural centers." 

Two additional Bethelehem Centers were opened in 
1922; one in Chattanooga, Tenn., with Mrs. Mattie Roe 
Moore as supervisor, and one in Birmingham, Ala., with 
Miss Jessie Drew Gill, formerly missionary to Cuba, as 
supervisor. The Council appoints workers to an inter- 
denominational institution in Dallas, in which the 
Methodist women of that city have a part. All of these 
centers have had normal development. The Bethlehem 
Center in Birmingham moved into a new location in 
1925 and was taken into the community chest. It has 
a large program of activities. 

Social Evangelistic Centers on Foreign Fields 

Social evangelistic centers in the foreign fields have 
been developed only within the past decade. The Cente- 
nary movement provided funds with which to build and 
equip centers, making possible a quite rapid growth. 

There are seven Institutional Churches on foreign 

196 Women and the Kingdom 

fields in which Woman's Work has some responsibiUty: 
two in Brazil, at Rio de Janeiro and Porto Alegre; one 
in Korea, at Choonchun; four in China, at Shanghai, 
Soochow, Changchow, and Huchow. Social evangelistic 
centers have been developed also: two in Japan, at Oita 
and Kure; three in Korea, at Seoul, Songdo, and Won- 
san; one in Cuba, at Matanzas; three in Mexico at 
Chihuahua, Durango, and Monterrey. There are seven- 
teen centers in foreign fields where the attempt is being 
made to present the gospel in the terms of the whole of 
life and community needs. In this day, when there is 
on mission fields a great social awakening, this particular 
form of missionary endeavor is meeting a real need, and 
holding those, who are inspired with social passion, to 
the cause of Christ. 

„ , , ^ ^ . The first Institutional Church to 

People's Central . , ,. , , r • • • 

T ^-^ . T>. J be established on any foreign mission 

Institute, Rto de , ^ , , ^ , t 

„ ., field was the People s Central Insti- 

Janeiro, Brazil , t • t^ m t^ 

tute, Kio de Janeiro, Brazil. Rev. 

H. C. Tucker was responsible for the opening of 
this work in 1906. The district in which the Church is 
located is a coffee-packing section. Approximately 42,- 
000 people live in the neighborhood of the Church, 
under conditions of poverty and needs of various kinds. 
Most of the people work long hours in factories or doing 
sweatshop work in their homes. 

The first Council worker to be appointed to the Insti- 
tute was Miss May Dye in 1908. Miss Trulie Rich- 
mond, Miss Blanche E. Howell, Miss Lydia Ferguson, 
Miss Layona Glenn, Miss Rachel Jarrett, Miss Nancy 
Holt, and Miss Virginia Howell have served at different 
times. Miss Viola Matthews is there at present. The 
missionaries conduct the day school and supervise the 

Women and the Kinedom 197 


social activities for women and girls. The day school 
is serving as a practice center for students who are tak- 
ing the normal course in Collegio Bennett. The Church 
carries on various forms of activity, such as club work, 
sewing schools, dispensaries, domestic science classes, 
night schools, a playground, a department for the deaf 
and dumb, a mothers' club, and an employment bureau. 
This mission is an oasis in the desert. The workers give 
much time to visitation in the homes. The regular forms 
of church work are carried on under the direction of 
a pastor. In 1922 Case Cottage was built as a home for 
the women missionaries. 

r .-. ^- , r-t. u The Porto Alegre Institutional 

Institutional Church _, , , , , . , 

_ ., „ ., Church IS located ma large manu- 

Porto Alegre, Brazil . . , . . t^ a i 

facturmg district, Porto Alegre 

is the capital of Rio Grande do Sul, the greatest cattle- 
raising State of Brazil. The Church was organized in 
1905 and the institutional features have been a gradual 
development. The building was planned and erected 
during the pastorate of Rev. Claude Smith, the 
brother of our sainted Deaconess Mary Elizabeth Smith. 
The building was dedicated in 1910 by Bishop Lambuth. 
The people of the section where the church is located 
are largely German and Italian, who take a very great 
interest in the work. There are eight nationalities 
among the children of the day school, yet all speak 
Portuguese. Miss Delia V. Wright, Miss Clara B. Ful- 
ler ton, and Miss Estelle Hood served as missionaries in 
this Church. In more recent years, Miss Helen Hardy 
(Mrs. Moreland) and Miss Sara Stout (Mrs. Saunders) 
have worked in the development of the institutional 
features. There is a large and successful day school 
which is supervised by teachers of Collegio Americano. 

198 Women and the Kingdom 

The Moore Memorial I nstitu- 
Moore Memorial . . ^, i ol i • /-i • 

. ^, , tional Church, Shanghai, China, 
Institutional Church j j • i onn n • 

, . „. . was founded in 1890. Being situ- 

Shanghat, China _, . . ? i^/r 

ated on the compound of Mc- 

Tyeire School, in the French Concession, it was for 

years the Church of the students and their families and 

friends. It has had some of the best preachers of the 

China Conference as its pastors, and has developed a 

strong body of Church leaders with a membership of 

nine hundred. Mrs. Huang Vau Ts Tata, the first girl 

pupil of Mrs. Lambuth's day school, is one of the leading 

women of the congregation; she serves in the capacity 

of local preacher. 

When McTyeire School, in 1919, moved Its high 
school and boarding department to its new campus, two- 
thirds of the former McTyeire property was sold to the 
General Department of the Board of Missions in order 
that the Moore Memorial Church might be developed 
into a great institutional Church. The property is 
located in a strategic center on the corner of Yunan, 
Hankow, and Thibet Roads. It is across the street from 
the race course, and within two minutes* walk of the 
great Fifth Avenue of Shanghai, which is the heart of the 
hotel and amusement section. This Is an ideal location 
for Institutional Church work. 

The plans of the Church are being developed by Rev. 
Sidney Anderson, who serves as assistant to the super- 
intendent, Rev. Yui Ts Tsa. The old McTyeire 
building houses one of the McTyeire primary schools, 
as well as the staff working at the Church. A hostel for 
girls working in the city is also conducted in the build- 
ing, and the institutional features are carried on there. 
Plans are being made for a new plant, which will be 

Women and the Kingdom 199 

financed from the sale of the old Trinity Church prop- 

Since 1922 Miss Lucy Jim Webb has been the wom- 
en's representative on the staff of the Church, giving 
special attention to the woman's work, for which the 
Council makes an appropriation. There is a splendid 
corps of workers, consisting largely of graduates of Mc- 
Tyeire School. The Church conducts a dispensary, con- 
tinuation classes for young women who are graduates, 
classes in embroidery, sewing and domestic science, baby 
welfare work, and night schools for men. When the 
Church was established it was agreed that the member- 
ship should control the policies and resources, preserving 
the unity of the Church and its social work. 
J. Kong Hong Church, in the 

w ..^ ^' .^1- t. heart of Soochow, acltyof 800,- 
Institutional Church ^^^ , \ r r i 

„ . _. . 000 people, was the first of the 

Soochow, Chtna „ T ^^ t i- ^i i 

Southern Methodist Churches in 

China to be developed as an Institutional Church. Kong 
Hong is the name of the district In which the Church Is 
located. For years It was a small struggling organi- 
zation, poorly housed. About 1910, it was decided by 
the Woman's Missionary Council to open settlement 
work near by in order to do more to help the women and 
children of the community. An old Chinese house was 
rented; later it was purchased and named The Maria 
Layng Gibson Settlement. This building furnished a home 
for the missionaries, Bible women, and teachers, also a 
place where the girls' school and other forms of social 
work were conducted. Miss Maggie J . Rogers pioneered 
the work of this settlement. It grew rapidly. With the 
coming of the Centenary the Church received a splendid 
new building, planned especially for settlement work. 

200 Women and the Kingdom 

At that time Miss Nina M. Stallings was added to the 
staff to take charge of the social service work for women. 
The settlement and the Church work are organized as 
parts of the same program. With Centenary funds a 
new home was built for the women workers. Miss 
Elizabeth Claiborne followed Miss Rogers in 1923 as 
principal of the girls' school. It is now supervised by 
teachers of the Laura Haygood Normal School. It 
would be impossible to mention all the lines of activity 
carried on for women and girls. Among them are: one 
adult and three junior missionary societies, a free day 
school conducted by the women of the missionary so- 
ciety, a half-day school for women, girls' and women's 
service clubs, a girls' camp, and a daily vacation Bible 

„ The I-zaung-Ka Institutional 

.^ ^. , „, , Church, Huchow, China is in 
Institutional Church ' , , 

„ , _, . process oi development; It is not 

Huchow, China ^ ^ ,, ,,:,,',.. 

yet tully established. Ihis is 

one of the Centenary projects that failed to receive its 
askings and, as a result, the work has been greatly re- 
tarded. I-zaung-Ka is a great down-town section of 
Huchow where there is an unlimited opportunity for 
service. For years there was a small Church ministering 
to the people and a day school affiliated with Virginia 
School. These activities were the nucleus around which 
the plans for the Institutional Church were developed. 
Property for a new church has been secured. In 1922 
Miss Jessie Bloodworth was appointed to this work. 
Rooms were rented and a half-day school for women 
and a day school for girls were developed. Rev. H. L. 
Sone is superintendent. At present there is no woman 
missionary in charge of the woman's work, but the Vir- 

Women and the Kingdom 201 

ginia School faculty is rendering every service possible. 

This is one of the enterprises that should have special 


„ . .^ , ^.^ . , The Institutional Church in 

Trinity Institutional ^, . _, . . , 

_, , „. . Changchow, China, is also a 

Church, Changchow ^ . t 

„. . Centenary enterprise. It was 

opened on October 18, 1923, in 
the business cen ter of the great ci ty of Changchow. The 
church occupied rented quarters on the third and fourth 
floors of a Chinese bank building. The congregation 
consisted of about two hundred and fifty members. 
There were clubs for various age groups, classes, night 
schools, a dispensary and other features. Rev. J. C. 
Hawk and Miss Margaret Rue organized this work. Be- 
cause of the unsettled political conditions in China, this 
work has been temporarily closed. 

TT/ i. • c^'.t. Wusih is one of the greatest indus- 

Work in Silk .... . „, , T • 1 1 

„., ^ „. ., trial cities in China. It is located 
Filature, Wusih , _ -i r o 

about twenty-five miles from boo- 

chow. Some years ago the Blanche Fentress and the 
Mary Virginia Nabors day schools were located at the 
North and East Gates of the city. These schools have 
been supervised by the evangelistic workers, living 
either in Soochow or Changchow. The General Depart- 
ment of the Board of Missions opened a technical school 
for boys in Wusih, and it seemed desirable that the 
women also should develop work there. Miss Ida L. 
Anderson pioneered the work, being the first woman 
missionary of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
to reside in that city. 

The opportunity for initiating a greater work was pre- 
sented in connection with one of the largest silk filatures 
in the city. The Chinese, who was the owner of this 

202 Women and the Kingdom 

plant, though not a Christian, was interested in his em- 
ployees and offered rooms and a regular appropriation 
if this work should be undertaken. A day nursery, 
night classes, and half-day schools were begun. Miss 
Anderson and Miss Dju, a Ginling College graduate, de- 
veloped this work. In 1924, a home for missionaries 
and Chinese workers was built, which is the first unit of 
a social-evangelistic center. 

_..„., A union social evangelistic 

Unton Social . .... 

_, ,..>-. center for women is located m 

Evangelxsuc Center . , . , . . ^ , t^ 

, „ theheart of the city of Seoul. It 

Seoul, Korea .... . , , 
IS the joint enterprise of the 

women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, the Presby- 
terian Church, and the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South. This work is the result of union Bible classes and 
institutes for women, that for years have been held by 
the evangelistic workers in the city of Seoul. With the 
release of women from their homes in more recent years, 
it has become clear that a larger social-evangelistic pro- 
gram was essential. In 1920, largely through the influ- 
ence of Bishop Lambuth, property was purchased, for 
this center, at the cost of $100,000. More than one 
thousand women are enrolled yearly in the various ac- 
tivities of this institution. There are clinics and baths 
for babies, clubs for mothers, home makers, teachers, 
and government students; its is a veritable beehive of 

An old rambling palace, with courts and gardens four 
hundred and twenty years old, a spot where some of the 
most significant events in Korea's history have trans- 
pired, may seem a strange place for a social-evangelistic 
center, but it has proved to be ideal. The people love 
it. It is truly the center, for in its gardens are to be found 

Women and the Kingdom 203 

the very stone placed there in 1395 to mark the geo- 
graphical center of the walled city. The home for the 
missionaries is the only new building which has been 
provided. The plan for the future development of the 
Center calls for an administration building with class- 
rooms, an auditorium, and a gymnasium. The historic 
Independence Hall, where in 1919 the Korean revolution 
was officially launched, will be kept as a social hall, and 
other buildings will be used as hostels for students in 
government schools. 

There are departments of child welfare, education, 
evangelism, and social service. A training course for 
Christian workers is conducted. Fifty hours of regular 
Bible study each week are offered. Hundreds have 
found Jesus and acknowledged him to be Lord of their 
lives. Each day witnesses a revival and new adventures 
in Christian service. Miss Mamie D. Myers pioneered 
this work and Miss Laura V. Edwards and Miss Ellasue 
Wagner followed her as Head Residents. 

_, „ . The social evangelistic center for 

The House of . ^ -r^ r ^u 

,-.... women m bongdo was a gift of the 

High Aims IT 1 ^- \u 

_, . _, Centenary. 1^ or a long time the evan- 

Songdo, Korea ... f . . , , r , , ■, 
gelistic missionaries had felt the need 

of a center where work for women could supplement the 
activities of the little Korean churches of the city. When 
the building was begun, the women of the city showed 
an unusual interest. Christian and non-Christian wom- 
en, old and young, watched the progress of the building. 
They could not believe that such a building was being 
erected for women. Doubt gave way to joy and hope 
when they saw the precious name, which they had chos- 
en, engraved on the door. The women were to have a 
chance for self-expression of which they had never 

204 Women and the Kingdom 

dreamed. 1 he name on the door is a Korean word of 
an old dynasty whose seat of power was in Songdo many 
years ago. This name, when translated into EngHsh, 
means The House of High Aims. 

Close affiliation with the Churches and fervent evan- 
gelism have been the secret of the power of this center 
since its foundation. The center provides daily and 
weekly religious instruction for the women of the city 
and carries social and educational programs. It reaches 
the yang ban, or upper-class women. In the first six 
months of its history, forty women had become Chris- 
tians and to-day there are seven hundred and thirty- 
three women and girls enrolled in various groups. The 
workers do much visiting in the homes preparing women 
for Church membership. The work of the Joy-Hardie 
Bible Institute is carried on in this building. There are 
night schools, cooking and sewing classes, day schools, 
and a kindergarten. From nine in the morning till ten 
in the evening the place is a scene of great activity. 
Miss Mary Vic Mauk has developed a strong music de- 
partment. Miss Agnes Graham founded and developed 
this work and is still the Head Resident. She lives in 
the home with other missionaries on the compound of 
Holston Institute, but has an office and a rest room in 
the center. The House of High Aims is fulfilling its 

The House of Miss Kate Cooper, the founder 

Abounding Grace of the Social Evangelistic center 
Wonsan. Korea for women in Wonsan, Korea, wrote 

in her report in 1926: "God has been wonderfully good 
to give us such a splendid new building for our woman's 
evangelistic work in Wonsan. We feel that the name, 
Yur Cha Kwan, which means House of Abounding Grace ^ 

Women and the Kingdom 205 

is just the right one. Although the building for the 
social-evangelistic center in Wonsan is new, having been 
completed in 1925, the work itself has been going on for 
years in small Korean houses, where it had no oppor- 
tunity to expand. The center is not only for the women 
of Wonsan, but serves the needs of the country women 
as well who look to Wonsan as a source of their inspi- 
ration. Twenty-five Bible women carry on their work 
from Wonsan as a center, reaching more than one thou- 
sand women in the district. In every small village, night 
schools for women affiliated with the central plant are 
being established. It is a new day for women, since the 
men are so eager for them to learn that they give their 
time to teaching them. Bible classes and institutes for 
women are the chief features of the work. This center 
is indeed a spiritual haven — a house of abounding grace, '^ 

r-,, „ ^ The House of Neighborly Love, 

The House of ^ a ■ • r^ \ r 

--.,.,, or the Atnan Kwan, was the first 

Neighborly Love 111,. 

_,. - settlement to be established m 

Oita, Japan .t- 1 1 • 

Japan. To the people it was a 

great mother heart and a center of brotherhood, so they 

named it Ths House of Neighborly Love. The work in 

Oita, a city of 45,000 people, was pioneered by Miss Ida 

M. Worth. This center was provided with the first 

Centenary money invested in Japan. The plant consists 

of the missionaries' home, which is also used for social 

activities, and a building, which contains the Japanese 

workers* home, a kindergarten, and classrooms. There 

is an attractive playground for small children. The 

center is located across the street from a public school, 

making it quite convenien t for the children. Besides the 

kindergarten and mothers' club affiliated with it, there 

are story hours, Bible classes, English classes for govern- 

206 Women and the Kingdom 

ment school students, recreational and social activities 

especially for the young people. Work has been carried 

on in a near-by silk filature, employing fifteen hundred 

girls. Misses Annette Gist and Miss Ruby Van Hooser 

pioneered the work in 1920. Council missionaries, who 

are pursuing their second and third year of language 

study, usually live in the settlement at Oita. From this 

center, by means of a Ford car, evangelistic work is 

carried on in rural communities and in Beppu, a near-by 


_ . , _ ^ ,. ^. Kure is the chief naval port of 

Social Evangeltsttc _ . r , ; ^^ ^^« 

-, ^ „ Japan, a city of about 150,000 

Center, Kure •* ^ , ' _ -^ c .u 

- people, r' or many years Southern 

Methodism has had a strong Church 
in Kure. A kindergarten has been conducted in connec- 
tion with it, which has been supervised by missionaries 
living in Hiroshima. Kure was for many years a mission 
station of the Presbyterian Church. In 1920, they de- 
cided to consolidate their work in another section of 
Japan, and, on the recommendation of Bishop Lambuth, 
their missionary home was purchased as a location for 
an evangelistic center. In 1925 a new home was built 
and the old house remodeled for social evangelistic 
activities. The work was pioneered in 1922 by Miss Ida 
M. Worth and Miss Mary Searcy, who is still the head 
resident. The center being located near government 
schools, there is a marvelous opportunity to win young 
people to Christ. Clubs for graduates of the kindergar- 
ten, for government primary school children, and for 
high school girls and boys are conducted in this center. 
There are also a woman's society and four children's 
Bible schools. This center has a summer camp, for 
which they have secured a permanent location at the 

Women and the Kingdom 207 

foot of a beautiful mountain. Twenty-five girls went to 

camp in 1926, and all testified that it was, for them, a 

new experience in Christian living. 

^ ^ r, ' ^- Mexico has three Centros Cristia- 

Centros Crtsttanos (nu - ^- n ^ \ ^ nw 

. -, . nos (Christian Centers) at Chi- 

m Mextco , , r-^ , , t 

huahua, Durango, and Monterry. 

The Chihuahua Centre was the first to be developed. 
When, by inter-denominational agreement, our Board of 
Missions assumed responsibility for the work in the 
nothern part of Mexico, the Congregationalists left Chi- 
huahua, and there came into the hands of the Southern 
Methodists a building which it was decided to use as an 
evangelistic center. Miss Lillie F. Fox pioneered the 
work in 1920. A short time after its opening Miss Fox 
wrote: "Our priestly friends have given free advertise- 
ment by admonishing their adherents not to attend our 
institution, but, due to the perversity of human nature, 
or out of pure curiosity, they have come, have seen, and 
have remained. Our total enrollment numbers eight 
hundred and twenty-five." English classes constitute 
one of the largest departments of the work. There are 
also Spanish classes, a day nursery. Camp Fire Girls, 
domestic science classes, and a clinic. The work is 
carried on in close cooperation with the Church, and 
through the various activities, the whole of life for many 
families is being enriched. 

The Centro Cristiano in Monterrey was the second 
evangelistic center to be opened. It was pioneered by 
Miss Sarah E. Warne in 1921. It has already passed 
the experimental stage and is carrying on a vital pro- 
gram of evangelization and Christianization. This 
Centro has developed a democratic spirit; the rich and 
the poor meet together. Systematic Bible study classes 

208 Women and the Kingdom 

are conducted by a graduate of the Bible Department 
of Colegio Roberts, The domestic science department 
is very popular and there is a strong department of 
English; also a Daily Vacation Bible School. In 1927 
the Centre was moved into the property of the Girls' 
School, that school having been moved and affiliated 
with Laurens Institute. Miss Warne says that the set- 
tlement is breaking down the prejudice of the people 
against Protestantism; this she believes to be its greatest 
contribution to the cause of Christ. 

The Centro Cristiano in Durango was opened in 1923, 
and Miss Anne Deavours was appointed its first Head 
Resident. It is located in property which formerly 
housed the MacDonell Institute. Much repair work 
and extensive remodeling was necessary. 

Many activities are carried on in this Centro: Camp 
Fire Girls, Boy Scouts, a story hour, and classes in Bible, 
English, reading, writing, first aid, and cooking. The 
majority of those enrolled in the beginning were Roman 
Catholics, and immediately the priests opened a similar 
institution, the first of its kind that they had initiated 
in Mexico. The Centro has a large commercial depart- 
ment. It is giving increasing emphasis to recreation. 
It is developing a corps of volunteer workers and has 
the cooperation of the Woman's Missionary Society, 
which assumes the responsibility of caring for many 
charity cases. Miss Ruth Byerly became Head Resident 
in 1927. 

The Ouinta Tosca ^^^ Evangelistic Center at Ma- 

, , ^ „ , tanzas, Cuba, is the latest develop- 

Matanzas, Cuba r , • r • • • • 

ment oi this type ot mstitution m 

foreign fields. A number of years ago the Woman's 

Missionary Council became heir to a beautiful piece of 

Women and the Kinofdom 209 


property in Matanzas, known as the Quinta Tosca. It 
is situated on the border of a very needy section. In 
1926, Miss Bertha Tucker, formerly a missionary to 
Korea, was sent to Cuba as an evangehstic worker. 
After investigating the need, she opened an evangelistic 
center in the Quinta Tosca. It is the first organized 
evangelistic work, outside the schools, attempted in 
Cuba by the women workers. Already it has a large 
program, limited only by the number of workers avail- 
able. There is a growing interest on the part of the 
people of the city, and the future development is very 
promising. At present much emphasis is being given to 
supervised playground activities. The community has 
a large Negro population, but the work is not limited to 
that group. 

Co-operative Homes for Young Women 
The cooperative homes for girls and young working 
women is another type of social-evangelistic work car- 
ried on by the women of the Church ; they feel a definite 
resoonsibility to create an environment that will serve 
as a protection as well as provide distinct Christian in- 
fluence for these young women. Seven such institutions 
have been established: Mary Elizabeth Inn, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. ; the Eva Comer Cooperative Home, 
Birmingham, Ala.; the Rebecca Sparks Inn, Waco, 
Tex.; the Young Woman's Cooperative Home, Lex- 
ington, Ky.; the Cooperative Home, Houston, Tex.; 
the Wilson Inn, Richmond, Va.; the Robert Mcln- 
tyre Cooperative Home, Savannah, Ga. 

^ Faith, inspired by the vision of 

Eva Comer ' ^ , , t- ^ 

^ . „ a need, brought the Eva Comer 

Co-operative Home ^ . ° _ ^ 

„. . , ,, Cooperative Home mto exist- 

BJrmtngham, Ala. ^ ^ . . 

ence. Two or three women and 


210 Women and the Kingdom 

Rev. George R. Stuart, the pastor of First Methodist 
Church, Birmingham, felt ' keenly that such an en- 
terprise should be undertaken. A board was formed 
and, after careful consideration, although 'there was 
but $500 in the treasury, a property was pur- 
hased. This property, with the necessary remodeling, 
cost $100,000. Mrs. B. B. Comer, the wife of an 
ex-governor of the State, was elected a trustee. 
Within a week after her acceptance she passed away, 
and her family gave $25,000 of her money to the home. 
The Board then voted that the institution should be 
known as the Eva Comer Cooperative Home. It opened 
its doors in December, 1920, and to-day sixty-four 
young women are making it their home; it is sometimes 
known as the Home for the Girl Away from Home. Mrs. 
J. C. Fields pioneered the work. There is a minimum 
rate for board which all must pay, but each young wom- 
an increases the amount in proportion as her ability to 
pay is increased. A loan fund is available. The Home 
is now free from debt and self-sustaining. It has Bible 
classes, a missionary society and recreational and social 
activities. It is a living monument to the one whose 
name it bears and a daily witness of the love of Christ. 

^, „ -,, , In the summer of 1900 a city 

The Young Woman s . . , , ... 

^ . ^_ mission board was organized in 

Co-operative Home ,^ ,. ^^^^ , ,,. 

_ Houston, and m 1907 the Young 

Houston, Tex. ... ,' .. . ^^ 

Woman s Cooperative Home was 

established — first in a rented building and later in a 
beautiful house of its own. Rev. H. M. Whaling was 
most helpful to the women in developing this enterprise. 
Sixty-four young women — clerks, stenographers, tele- 
phone operators, students, waitresses, and factory girls 
— find a home in this center. Its beautiful living room 

Women and the Kingdom 211 

and parlors afford a place for the social life; thus 
the holiday seasons are made attractive for girls away 
from home. 

T^u TT7-f T The cooperative home in Rich- 

The Wilson Inn , tt • , ^, rrr-, 

„. . . T7 mond, Va., is known as The Wilson 

Richmond, Va. _ ,,. ,^ -^.^.^ .,. 

Inn. Miss Mary E. McDaniel, its 

Head Resident (in 1925), wrote: "In this age of indus- 
trial development where floor space in great factories is 
crowded with the latest improved machinery, we find a 
multitude of safety devices guarding life and limb. . . . 
In many cities the slogan Safety First is hung from the 
front of street cars. . . . Even on business streets we 
find safety zones. Wilson Inn is a veritable safety zone 
for the hundred and forty girls who have become its res- 
idents for varying periods of time during the year just 
past."^ Girls working in factories, stenographers, tele- 
phone operators, and business girls — all think of Wilson 
Inn as home. Presbyterians, Baptists, Disciples, Meth- 
odists, those of any or no faith, find the same welcoming 
hand extended to them. 

The Robert Mclntyre ,/^^ Mclntyre Cooperative 

^ . _, Home is the result of the vision 

Co-operative Home 

„ . ^ and prayers of one person, Mrs. 

H. E. Wilson, of Savannah. 

This institution was opened in 1915. It is located in a 

beautiful section of the city and offers a refined Christian 

home to working women. 

rnt. n t. o .. The Rebecca Sparks Inn, was 

The Rebecca Sparks , ^ . , 

T nr rp the first cooperative home 

mn, vYacOf lex, • i i i ttt » 

enterpnsed by the Woman s 

Work. It was presented to the Board for a Deacon- 
^Report of Woman's Missionary Council, 1924-25, page 224. 

212 Women and the Kingdom 

ess Home the year that the Deaconess Work was author- 
ized. However, it serves as a center of deaconess activi- 
ty, rather than a home for deaconesses since it soon be- 
came a home for the working girls of the city of Waco. 
It was founded in 1900 by Miss Rebecca Sparks, a mis- 
sionary pioneer, and the work was developed by Miss 
Mattie Wright, the first person to become a deaconess 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. 

n^ r.- u ^t. T The Mary Elizabeth Inn, of 

Mary Elizabeth Inn ._.-., J , 

OP ' /-• rjj San Francisco, Calif., IS the gift of 

San Francisco Calif . ,, ^ ^^ ',. , , °^ 

Mrs. L. H. Glide to the Wom- 
an's Missionary Council. It was established in 1915 
and is the most outstanding of all the Cooperative 
Homes. Miss Mattie Wright was the pioneer worker, 
and Miss Ethel Jackson has been superintendent for 
the past ten years. Mary Elizabeth Inn carries on all 
the activities of the cooperative home, and also serves 
in a very special way by providing a home for mission- 
aries to the Orient as they go to their fields and as they 
return. Many sick missionaries have found at the 
hands of the workers at Mary Elizabeth Inn that 
tender ministry which they so much needed. It is a 
lighthouse in the far, far West. 

_, _ ^ . The Spofiford Receiving Home, 

TheSpofford ^ uv u a • loic • t^ r-v 

„ . . „ established in 1915 in Kansas City, 

Receiving Home . . . . , , , 

„. ,, IS a unique form oi work that has no 

Kansas City, Mo. „ , • , ^i i t • 

parallel in the Church. It is not in 

any sense an orphanage, but a receiving home for chil- 
dren, from three to twelve years old, whoss homes are 
temporarily broken by crime, or by the death, separa- 
tion, or illness of parents. The children remain until 
their homes can be rehabilitated or until they can be 
placed in other homes. They attend the ward 

Women and the Kingdom 213 

school and the city Churches. The religious instruction 
of the home is outstanding. In the summer, through 
the kindness of Rev. Charles M. Scarritt and the rail- 
road officials, the fifty children move to a beautiful 
home in Green Mountain Falls, Colo., where they live 
and play in the beautiful out of doors. Spofford Home 
has always done a special form of scientific social work, 
and, at the request of the social agencies of Kansas City, 
it is to undertake a more definite task of specialized 
work in the testing of children. The institution is the 
lengthened shadow of Deaconess Daisy Ritter, who has 
given herself to the hundreds of children that have had 
need for a Christian home. 


The compassion of Jesus for the 

„, . , c ^ . bodily sufferings of men has always 

Physical Suffering , ^ ^^ ° . .. . / 

been a surncient justincation for 

making medical ministry an integral part of the mission- 
ary program. The desperate physical needs of peoples, 
especially in the far East and in Africa, where modern 
medical science was unknown when the first missionaries 
entered those lands, has made always a tremendous 
appeal. It has become proverbial that Dr. Peter Parker 
opened China with his lancet. Medical work was doubt- 
less the opening wedge for Christianity in that great 

In the history of missions of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, medical work has had a distinctive place. 
Dr. Charles Taylor, one of the first two men sent by the 
Church to China in 1848, was a physician. Dr. D. 
C. Kelley, who went out in 1854, was a graduate in medi- 
cine. The foundations of the medical work of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in China, were laid 
by Dr. Walter R. Lambuth, and carried on by the late 
Dr. W. H . Park. It was also Dr. Lambuth that pioneered 
the work in Japan; Dr. C. L, Reid pioneered in Korea; 
and Dr. D. L. Mumpower and Dr. Lambuth in Africa. 
Doctors have had a prominent part in initiating South- 
ern Methodist missions. 

It was not strange, therefore, that the women of the 
Church, in thinking of the needs of women in other 
lands, should early have turned their thought to medical 

Women and the Kingdom 215 

work. The need of women in Oriental lands made an 
especial appeal, for even when medical aid became avail- 
able they were unwilling to receive attention from men 

Medical Work J^^ ^^°7 ""l^^ beginnings of niedi- 

. ^. . cal work m Lhma has already been 

m China . . , ... , -,,7 , tt • 

given, m describmg the Woman s Union 

Christian Medical College in Shanghai. This medical 
plant, including a hospital, clinic, medical school, nurse- 
training department, and schools for technicians and 
public health workers, is the largest enterprise of its 
kind that women have attempted in any land. The part 
which the Southern Methodist women have in this 
union ■work is the result of the labors, both in Soochow 
and Shanghai, of Dr. Margaret Polk, Dr. Ethel Polk 
Peters, Dr. HattieL. Love, and Miss Mary Hood, R.N. 
Miss Zak Fok Me and Miss Yui Sing Tsu (afterwards 
known as Miss Dora Yui) were two of the first students 
to graduate from the Mary Black Medical School in 
Soochow. Dr. Zak became the Chinese resident phy- 
sician in the hospital while Dr. Margaret Polk was in 
charge. She had a strong spiritual influence and literally 
gave her life for the hospital; having contracted tuber- 
culosis, she died while still young. Miss Dora Yui ac- 
companied Mrs. Josephine E. Campbell to Korea, help- 
ing in the establishment of Carolina Institute. She 
later felt a call to return to her homeland and work for 
Chinese women. She now lives in a town near Shanghai, 
where she is conducting an independent work for women 
including a Bible-Training School. She has a national 
reputation for her spiritual power, having traveled 
throughout China conducting revivals and institutes; 
she has won many women to the Christian life. Dr. 

216 Women and the Kingdom 

Mary Tai, also a graduate of the Mary Black School in 
Soochow, came to the United States, took postgraduate 
work at Johns Hopkins University, and returned to 
China to open independent medical work. She has 
always been a strong evangelistic force. Dr. Lucile M. 
Van, another graduate of Mary Black Medical School, 
studied in the Woman's Medical School in Philadelphia. 
She became an eye, ear, nose, and throat specialist and 
after returning to China was placed in charge of this 
work in the Margaret Williamson Hospital. She is 
(1928) in the United States again studying in Ann Arbor, 
Mich. She is an unusually skilled specialist. 

An extensive clinical work is carried on in the Belle 
Harris Bennett cHnical building of the Union Christian 
Medical College. One day, shortly after the building 
was completed, at the close of a crowded clinical hour, 
a bundle of rags was found in the corner of the chapel. 
Upon investigation it was found to contain a wee baby 
girl. Since no one claimed the child, Miss Hood adopted 
her for the hospital, naming her Margeret Williamson. 
She has grown to be a bright, beautiful girl and is the 
pet of the entire staff of doctors and nurses, Chinese and 
foreign. The plans are being drawn for a new hospital, 
the present one being forty-five years old; this new plant 
will contain a large department for children's work. 

The second medical center in which the women have 
a part is at Changchow, China. When Dr. Hattie Love 
returned from her furlough in 1927, she was appointed 
to the Changchow General Hospital, which had been 
conducted for a number of years by the General De- 
partment of the Board in an old Chinese building. A 
plan of cooperation had already been agreed upon be- 
tween the Woman's Department and the General De- 

Women and the Kingdom 217 

partment for the conduct and maintenance of this work. 
Associated with Dr. Love was Miss Lorena Foster, R.N. , 
who went to the field in 1926. Dr. R. Morris Paty 
is the physician representing the General Department 
of this united work. The opportunity at Changchow is 
very great, but the buildings are entirely inadequate. 
The unsettled conditions in China have affected Chang- 
chow seriously, and the hospital was for a time the head- 
quarters of soldiers. Dr. Love and Miss Foster have 
remained at their posts and have ministered to cholera 
patients and wounded soldiers, while keeping up their 
regular hospital work. 

In addition to the medical work in Changchow and 
Shanghai, the Woman's Missionary Council has helped 
in general health work. For three years a regular ap- 
propriation was made to the support of the health pro- 
gram of Dr. C. C. Peters, who worked under the auspices 
of the Y. W. C. A., traveling throughout China, teach- 
ing health by means of pictorial charts. This work has 
since become thoroughly established and no longer needs 
to depend upon Church boards. In the Kong Hong In- 
stitutional Church In Soochow health work has had a 
large place In the Woman's Department. A baby wel- 
fare department has been conducted; also baby welfare 
campaigns, which are important events In Soochow. 
The doctors and nurses of the Soochow Hospital have 
given efficient service. Another contribution that has 
been made to general health has been the systematic 
visitation of the mission schools by the women phy- 
sicians. Recently each of the three largest schools has 
had a resident nurse; graduates of the Nurse-Training 
Department of Margaret Williamson Hospital have 

218 Women and the Kingdom 

been employed. They not only care for the students 
but teach classes in health and hygiene. 

Medical Work [^^^ General Work of the Board of 

. j^ Missions conducts hospitals in Wonsan, 

m Korea i • o i -t^i 

and m Songdo. There was formerly a 

hospital in Choon Chun, which is now closed. Both the 
General and Woman's Work have shares in Severance 
Union Hospital in Seoul. An agreement was early en- 
tered upon between the departments of the Board 
whereby the women should supply the nurses for these 
hospitals, and maintain and conduct the nurse-training 

In Songdo, this work was enterprised by Dr. W. T. 
Reid, who went to Korea in 1907. For three years he 
labored without the aid of a trained American nurse. 
Finally, in 1910, Miss Gilberta Harris, R.N., was sent 
out. Shortly afterwards the hospital, which was the 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Ivey of Lynchburg, Va., 
was completed, and became the center for the nurse- 
training work, the training school being established in 
1911, and the first class graduating in 1914. Miss Harris 
remained in Korea till 1916 and was succeeded by Miss 
Rosa Lowder, R.N. During 1921-22, Miss Lynda 
Bray, R.N., and Miss Alice E. Furry, R.N., were in 
charge of the Nurse-Training School. Miss Carrie 
Turner, R.N., went to Ivey Hospital in 1919, remain- 
ing three years. At present Miss Rosa Lowder, R.N., 
and Miss Helen Rosser, R.N., who went out in 1924, 
are at Ivey Hospital. In 1921 a lovely home for nurses 
was built with Centenary funds. A branch dispensary 
of the Ivey Hospital was opened in the Songdo Wom- 
aii's Evangelistic Center in 1923, the nurses giving 
seA'ice there also. Twenty nurses have been gradu- 

Women and the Kingdom 219 

ated from the Nurse-Training Department of Ivey 
Hospital. There are at present ten men and women in 
training and four graduate nurses are employed. 

Medical work is also carried on in Wonsan. For ten 
years this consisted of only a dispensary under the super- 
vision of Dr. J. B. Ross. In 1911 a hospital was built. 
The Woman's Work did not provide a trained nurse 
till 1917, when Miss Grace McCubbins, R.N., was ap- 
pointed to this institution. She married the following 
year, and until 1922, when Miss Lynda Bray, R.N., was 
transferred from Songdo, the work was without a gradu- 
ate nurse. In 1923, the hospital was enlarged and Miss 
Blanche E. Hauser, R.N., took charge of the Nurse- 
Training Department, where she still serves; she is as- 
sisted by graduate Korean nurses. 

The Woman's Work has had only one representative 
in the Choon Chun Hospital. Miss Alice E. Furry, R.N., 
was appointed to this work in 1922. She was assisted 
by a graduate nurse, but did not attempt to conduct a 
Nurse-Training Department. The hospital was closed 
in 1927. 

Severance Hospital and Medical School has a plant 
valued at $200,000 and is operated by six cooperating 
denominations. The largest single donor has been Mr. 
L. H. Severance, whose name it bears. The share as- 
sumed by the Woman's Missionary Council provided 
for an annual appropriation to the maintenance of the 
Nurse-Training Department and the support of a nurse. 
Mrs. Josephine E. Campbell served in Severance as 
evangelistic worker for several years just previous to 
her death. 

In addition to the medical work in Severance, the 
Woman's Work has a share in the support of the Baby 

220 Women and the Kingdom 

Welfare and Dispensary Department of the Union 
Evangelistic Center in Seoul. 

Medical work in Korea has not developed as rapidly 
as it has in China. The slow progress is probably due 
to the conservatism and superstition that prevail 
throughout Korea with reference to disease. The diffi- 
culty in securing young women of suitable age who can 
qualify educationally for nurse training is another prob- 
lem. In the nurse-training departments men nurses as 
well as women have been trained. 

Medical Work ^^ "° P^^^^ '^^ ^^^ world, perhaps, are 

. . , . the physical sufferings of men more ter- 

tn Africa . . 

rible than in the heart of the Belgian 

Congo. From the beginning the medical work of the 

Methodist Episcopal Church, South, in that field, has 

been central. It has been deemed indispensable as a 

form of missionary service. It is also essential to the 

missionary who has needed medical advice and help in 

adjusting his life to the climatic conditions of an area 

in the tropics very unfavorable to the white man. 

The Congo Mission was founded in 1914 when Bishop 
W. R. Lambuth arrived with six missionaries, one a 

Miss Kathron Wilson, R.N., was the first medical 
missionary sent to Africa by th? Woman's Work. She 
sailed in August, 1917, reaching Wembo Nyama in 
January, 1918. Before her arrival Dr. D. L. Mumpower 
had opened a small hospital and dispensary at Wembo 
Nyama. Soon after her arrival. Miss Wilson was left in 
charge of the hospital, also of the other medical work 
on the field. "Her accomplishments in caring for the 
sick and unfortunate were no less than wonderful. In 
some instances she practiced surgery, performing nu- 

Women and the Kingdom 221 

merous minor and one major operation." On her return 
to the field after her first furlough, Miss Wilson stopped 
in Belgium to study tropical medicine. She took these 
courses in French, passing her examinations with credit. 
After her return to Africa 18,000 treatments were 
given in the dispensary at Wembo Nyama. In 
1922, Miss Flora Foreman, R.N., and Mrs. Fannie B. 
Warren, R.N., were appointed to Africa. They were 
followed by Miss Dora Jane Armstrong, R.N., in 1925, 
by Miss Helen Farrier, R.N., in 1927, and by Miss 
Mary Taylor Myers, R.N., in 1928. Miss Wilson and 
Mrs. Warren have married and left the field. In 1927 
Dr. Janet Miller, formerly of the China mission, arrived 
in Africa; she is the first woman physician serving in 
that field. 

There are (in 1928) three medical centers in Africa in 
each of which the Woman's Work has a share in the 
maintenance and staff. The new hospital at Wembo 
Nyama was furnished from the women's share of the 
Centenary fund for Africa; the cost was $5,000. In 
1926, this hospital cared for 423 patients, and 26,349 
treatments were given in the dispensary. Miss Dora J. 
Armstrong serves at Wembo Nyama, doing an aggres- 
sive and outstanding work. The surgical dressings for 
hospital use are made from cotton, planted and culti- 
vated under her direction. Miss Armstrong is doing 
thorough work in nurse training; recently she made a 
study of the medical work in the Presbyterian Mis- 
sion, leaving two of her best men nurses in that mis- 
sion for special training. Later they will return as as- 
sistants in the nurse training work. Miss Armstrong 
also finds time to superintend Boy Scouts and Mothers' 

222 Women and the Kingdom 

There is also a small hospital at Tunda. In 1926 there 
were 462 patients, and 6,083 were treated in the clinic. 
Miss Flora Foreman, R.N., is in charge at Tunda; for 
eight months (in 1927) she bore the entire responsibility 
of the medical work, there being no doctor at the station. 

In the center at Minga, 410 treatments were given in 
1926. Dr. Janet Miller is now stationed at this point. 
In her 1927 report she says: "Gradually the news of 
our medical work has spread from village to village, 
until our capacity for caring for inpatients was so 
taxed as to cause us serious inconvenience. In each ward 
was crowded more than twice the number of patients 
that the building was intended to accommodate." The 
following is quoted from two letters from Dr. Miller: 
"The patients who have been able to work for their food 
have planted a garden of several acres in manioc, corn, 
and beans. They have also transplanted plantain trees. 
. . . One day an old chief arrived from a village two 
days' journey away. He left his eighteen wives at 
home and brought with him five personal servants and 
seventeen sick people from his village. What a pro- 
cession they made! It was like an exhibition of the 
various tropical diseases, including sleeping sickness." 

While much time and strength is being given by the 

missionaries to the bodies of men, yet the spiritual life 

of their patients is by no means neglected. Regular 

services are held in the hospitals, and personal work is 

constantly carried on. They also do follow-up work 

after the patients have been dismissed, thus extending 

their Influence into the homes. 

-- ,. . „, , The Board of Missions has three hos- 

M-Cdicol yyork 

. ., . pitals in Mexico — at Monterrey, Chi- 

in Mexico 

huahua, and Torreon. By agreement 


Women and the Kingdom 223 

the women supply the nurses and conduct the nurse- 
training departments of these hospitals, as in Korea. 
The following trained nurses have been sent to Mexico 
for this work: Miss Naomi Chapman (1922), Miss Edna 
Potthoff (1923), Mrs. Helen M. Lang (1923), Miss 
Pearl Hall (1924), Miss Bessie Baldwin (1924), Miss 
Ellen B.Cloud (1925), and Miss Bessie Lindsey (1927). 

The JMonterrey Hospital is the best furnished of the 
three hospitals in Mexico; it has a well-equipped labora- 
tory, and a superior X-ray machine. In 1925, 1,257 
patients received treatment. The nurse-training de- 
partment has a three-year course, corresponding to 
standard courses in the United States. Eleven Mexican 
nurses have already graduated. Miss Naomi Chapman, 
R.N., is superintendent of nurses. Miss Edna PotthofT, 
R.N., and Miss Pearl Hall, R.N., have also served as 
members of the missionary staff. Much attention is 
given to personal evangelism; Deaconess Cornelia God- 
bey served for a year as evangelistic worker in this hos- 

The hospital at Chihuahua is known as Sanatorio 
Palmore. It was given this name by the missionaries 
in order that it might share in the prestige already gained 
by the school and printing plant in that city. Plans for 
this hospital began shortly after the revolution (1914- 
1918), when our missionaries returned to Chihuahua. 
A beautiful piece of property near the outskirts of the 
city was purchased. It consisted of a spacious residence 
and three acres of land. In 1923, Dr. J. H. Ray and Miss 
Edna Potthoff, R.N., were transferred from Monterrey 
to Chihuahua to develop the work. Miss Potthoff, in 
writing of their early experience, says: "With the incon- 
venience and the lack of help the work was very hard 

224 Women and the Kingdom 

and confining. I worked day and night. If I had three 
hours of sleep in the twenty-four I thought that I was 
blessed. We had to draw all the water by hand from a 
well which was very deep and carry it for the distance 
of a city block. It was a very dry season, and the city 
water was full of mud and slime. Our equipment was 
inadequate. Many of the instruments and furnishings, 
discarded at the hospital in Monterrey, were brought 
over here. It took me eight or ten hours to sterilize the 
material for the operating room instead of two or three, 
because the sterilizer leaked." To-day the Sanatorio 
is fairly well equipped. It has a modern X-ray machine, 
the gift of First Church, Birmingham, Ala. The grounds 
furnish space for raising Jersey cows and chickens; also 
vegetable and flower gardens, all used for the benefit 
of the patients. Up to 1927 there had been 737 patients, 
348 of whom came in 1926. Since January, 1927, there 
has been no missionary doctor in the hospital. Mexican 
doctors use it for their patients, and Miss Edna Potthoff, 
R.N., is superintendent. The first student nurse en- 
tered in 1924, graduating in 1927. There are now seven 
nurses in training. 

The nurse's profession in Mexico is in its Infancy, 
and it is not easy to find those who are able and willing 
to endure the hardships of the required course. Only 
Christians are accepted for training. Daily religious 
services are held by the nurses, and they do personal 
work with their patients. 

The third medical center in Mexico is the Hospital 
Americano, at Torreon. It was opened in December, 
1923, the actual work of the hospital beginning in Janu- 
ary, 1924, at which time four young women entered as 
student nurses. Mrs. Helen M. Lang, R.N., was the 

Women and the Kingdom 225 

first superintendent of nurses, and Miss Bessie Baldwin, 

R.N., had charge of the operating room. In 1927, Miss 

Baldwin became superintendent, and Miss Bessie Lindsey 

took charge of the operating room. The hospital has an 

out-patient as well as an in-patient department. The 

out-patient department is largely charity; more than 700 

were given free treatment. In 1926 over 400 patients 

in this hospital were treated ; a large number of them were 

charity cases. In 1927, ten fine Christian girls were in 

training, some of them being life service volunteers. 

After graduating one of this number expects to take 

Bible training, preparing herself for definite Christian 

service among her own people; another will Work in one 

of the Centros Cristianos. 

In addition to the medical work in the hospitals, 

health work is being Carried on in the Centros. The 

one in Monterrey has been giving special attention to 

child nutrition, thus meeting a very great need. The 

Centro in Chihuahua has a clinic with Miss Ellen B. 

Cloud, R,N., in charge. 

nf J- , T»/ t. ' The Methodist Episcopal Church 

Medical Work in . .,.,.,,, t 

^t, TT •. J ^ South, Until withm the last decade, 

the United States , , ., , , . , o -j^L 

has built very few hospitals, bcarntt 

Bible and Training School, in Kansas City, from its 

founding in 1892 till 1905, conducted a hospital to train 

Christian nurses for missionary service. It was the first 

of the series of excellent hospitals In Kansas City and 

was very popular. It occupied a primal place among 

the hospitals of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

making a very definite contribution to Christian service. 

Miss Emma D. Cushman, its first superintendent, went 

as a missionary to Casarea, Turkey, and, because of her 

wonderful service at Konie during the World War, has 


226 Women and the Kingdom 

been honored by three nations. Miss Mary Hood, R.N., 
who was a graduate of Scarritt Hospital, and later 
its superintendenc, went to China to open the Nurse- 
Training Department of Mary Black Hospital in Soo- 
chow; she still serves in Margaret Williamson Hospital, 
Shanghai. Miss Harriet Leek, another graduate, after 
distinguished service elsewhere, is now director of the 
Visiting Nurses' Association of Hartford, Conn. Still 
others have given outstanding service: Miss Harriet 
Butler in the Medical Settlement in Pine Mountain, 
Harlan County, Ky., Miss Helen Gordon Mcintosh, in 
India, and Miss Genevieve Farmer, in Europe during 
the World War. This hospital undoubtedly made its 
contribution to the building of the Kingdom. 

To-day the medical service of the Board of Missions, 
Woman's Work, is practically confined to the clinical 
and health work in Wesley Houses and Institutional 
Churches; there are very few of these centers that do 
not carry on some form of this ministry. 

Caring for the sick and health education have been 
carried on through many forms of service: dispensaries, 
small hospitals for minor operations, general prenatal, 
infant, dental, eye, ear, nose, and throat, pediatrics, and 
pellagra clinics, nutrition classes, care of sick in their 
homes, provision of linens for sick in the homes, and ex- 
amination and care of school children. These services 
have been available for both colored and white people. 
It is impossible to state the number that have been 
blessed by this ministry; much of it has been possible 
because of the volunteer service of Christian physicians, 
with whom the nurses have cooperated. The number 
of trained nurses within the deaconess ranks has been 
very small compared with the amount of service ren- 

Women and the Kingdom 227 

dered. Many nurses have been employed locally by the 
city boards of Missions. 

There are a few centers which have carried on out- 
standing medical service for long periods of years: St. 
Mark's Hall, New Orleans, Kingdom House, St. Louis, 
and Institutional Church, Kansas City. 

^. »^ L. TT » St. Mark's Hall is located in a very 

St. Mark's Hall , . . ^^ ^ , 

^ , congested section of New Orleans 

New Orleans , *' , , , r- ^ r^ 

known as the old French yuarter, 

where there is a population of approximately 40,000 peo- 
ple of many nationalities. The health need of this com- 
munity is very great, and St. Mark's has sought to meet 
it through a splendidly organized department of child 
welfare. A number of outstanding nurses have been ap- 
pointed to serve this work: Miss Kathron Wilson, R.N., 
who later went to Africa; Miss Lulu Cason, R.N., and 
Miss Emma Vogel, R.N. At first the rooms and equip- 
ment were very inadequate, but later, when the new 
building was erected, necessary provisions were made. 
There have been six clinics carried on for many years. 
The attendance has always been phenomenally large. 
A fine laboratory is connected with the clinic. During 
the World War this medical center was made the base 
for a large emergency effort in fighting influenza. 

-,. . -- Kingdom House, in St. Louis, is 

Kingdom House , . , ,. . 

c,^ , . another social evangelistic center 

St. Louts . , , , , 

where a large place has been given to 

medical work. It is located in a district of 50,000 people, 
more than one-third of whom are foreign born. It is 
also near a large factory district. For a number of years 
Kingdom House had the best equipment for its clinic of 
any social evangelistic center in the Church. Baby wel- 
fare work, including baby feeding, and mothers' in- 

228 Women and the Kingdom 

struction classes have had a prominent place. It has 

cooperated in a very large way with the other social 
agencies of the city at work on the health program of 
St. Louis, It has maintained a large pure milk station. 
The nurse, in reporting the work in 1927, said: "During 
the year our clinic has grown and many persons have 
been helped to better health. An eye clinic has been 
added, whereby children with impaired vision are en- 
abled to secure properly fitted glasses and treatment. 
Parents are becoming better educated about prevention 
of diphtheria; fifty children were given antitoxin with 
splendid results, A special weight clinic is in progress 
and a capable pediatrician, by giving his time generous- 
ly, has built up a good baby clinic. Three general clinics 
are held each week, and 3,048 persons have been treated. 
The nurse doing the follow-up work of the day nursery 
applicants comes in close contact with the mothers, in- 
vestigates the sanitary conditions of the homes, and 
verifies the mother's statement of the need of nursery 
care. Arrangements were made for seventy persons in 
this neighborhood to receive hospital care and fifty-six 
to receive special treatment in private offices free of 
charge."^ From such a record it is evident that King- 
dom House is still keeping its medical work in the fore- 
front of its activities. 

, _, , The Institutional Church in 

Institutional Church ^^ „. . . , . 

„ _. -- Kansas City 16 situated ma semi- 

Kansas City, Mo. ^ . ■' . , t ,• 

loreign community, the Italians 

largely predominating. A large public school is located 

a few blocks from the church; the children of this school 

are almost entirely Italian, and many of the teachers 

also are Italian. Medical work always had a central 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missionary Council, 1927, page 233. 

Women and the Kingdom 229 

place in the program of the Institutional Church, especial 
emphasis being placed on cooperation with the Baby 
Welfare Department of the city. Nurses and doctors 
have given their services. The church has been used 
as the headquarters for many city health agencies, work- 
ing for better health conditions. The Church has been 
a cooperating force in the community rather than an 
agency attempting an independent program. Mothers' 
instruction classes and pre-natal clinics receive much 
attention; a nurse visits in the homes of the people. 
During the World War, when doctors and nurses were 
commandeered for service, the clinic suffered for work- 
ers, but the church was made the center of general 
health programs. The Red Cross used it as a center 
for its membership campaigns. The Church rendered 
distinguished service during the World War helping to 
combat the influenza epidemic. It is giving special em- 
phasis (in 1928) to child feeding and mother instruction 

p „ Since the organization of the Wesley 

y . House work, the city, county, and state 

have enlarged their health programs, in- 
cluding the care of the sick, preventive measures, and 
health education. The trend of the medical work in 
home mission institutions is toward greater cooperation 
with civic agencies. The Wesley Houses provide stations 
where these agencies may carry on their work, making 
sympathetic contacts with the people through the mis- 
sionaries. This new method of health service is well 
demonstrated in Centenary Institute, Nashville, Tenn., 
where the institution is used as a demonstration center 
by the Health Department of the city and the Nursing 
Education Department of George Peabody College for 

230 Women and the Kingdom 

Teachers. Seven clinics are conducted in the Institute 
largely by these outside agencies — the center reaping 
the result, but not bearing the expense or directing the 
activities. Mrs. Carrie L. Bond worked for years in the 
settlements in Tampa, Fla. During her long service in 
that city she witnessed the change from institutional- 
directed health work to cooperative effort with other 

Christianizing the Social Order 

The women of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, have been pioneers in the field of social service. 
There was never a time in the history of home mission 
work when the auxiliary women were not interested in 
charity and relief; this work found a large place in their 
early reports. Gradually, however, the Woman's Board 
of Home Missions began to realize that preventive work, 
as well as mere charity, must be included in the program 
of service. They felt keenly the obligation to lead the 
womanhood of the societies in the study of social prob- 
lems. This was a great educational undertaking. As 
Church women they had no precedent to follow. No 
woman's missionary societies of any denomination re- 
garded this as an integral part of missionary work. The 
distinction between missionary and social work was 
quite clearly drawn. The Southern Methodist women 
determined to approach social problems from a Chris- 
tian viewpoint, claiming the whole of life for Jesus 
Christ. With this growing conviction, as God directed, 
they progressed step by step in the educational process. 

In 1908, a beginning in organized effort was made by 
the appointment of a standing committee on Sociology 
and Philanthropy; it was composed of Miss Belle H. 
Bennett, Mrs. Frank Siler, Miss Vivian Conway, Mrs. 

Women and the Kingdom 231 

Luke G. Johnson, and Miss Mabel K. Howell. The 
duty of this committee was: "To study social conditions 
in our own land and the most successful lines of social 
service work and to report to the Board annually on the 
same, suggesting subjects for local investigation and 
legislation." This was a large undertaking, but the com- 
mittee came before the Board each year with the results 
of its investigation; and the auxiliaries were urged to 
carry on similar studies in their local communities. The 
white slave trafific, the moving picture, the liquor traffic, 
the sale of drugs, and compulsory education all had a 
part in this study during these early days. It was soon 
realized that what the women needed most were guides 
to help them in their local investigations. The stand- 
ing committee, therefore, decided to prepare schedules 
to be used by city mission boards and local auxiliaries. 
This was an advance step, having great educational 

In 1910 when the work was reorganized the constitu- 
tion of the Woman's Missionary Council provided for a 
fourth vice president in charge of social service. This 
was another forward step. The standing committee, 
that had formerly directed the work in the Board of 
Home Missions, became the committee of the new de- 
partment. A manual on social service was prepared as 
a guide, every auxiliary being asked to appoint a social 
service committee, whose duty it was to lead in study 
and investigation, keeping the entire auxiliary informed 
concerning local conditions. Later, quarterly social serv- 
ice programs were included in the auxiliary programs. 
By this method, educational work went forward by leaps 
and bounds. Many subjects were studied: such as 
housing, the status of women, the liquor trafhc, legalized 

232 Women and the Kingdom 

vice, lynching, public schools, Negro homes, and public 
institutions for dependents and delinquents. Many bills 
pending in Congress or in the state legislatures called 
forth resolution of indorsement or protest. The women 
learned the meaning of social legislation and how to help 
in bringing it to pass. There came an understanding of 
the necessity for cooperative effort in social reform. The 
auxiliaries in cities began to unite for the accomplish- 
ment of their common tasks, and district and state-wide 
cooperation often resulted. In process of time, marriage 
and divorce, child labor, and health all received ex- 
tended study. Gradually the term Social Service, so 
vague at first, became full of new meaning, and through 
the enlarging vision new fields of service were included 
in the missionary program; the women were learning 
the meaning of the Jesus way of life. So great had been 
the advance that Mrs. W. A. Newell, the Council Super- 
intendent of Social Service, wrote in 1925: "Testimony 
has come from without our ranks, from social workers, 
state departments of public welfare, and other agencies 
concerning the efhciency of the Southern Methodists in 
local community work. One said: 'When I go to a town 
unknown to me and want a group with whom to initiate 
a movement for public welfare, I go to the Methodist 
Woman's Missionary Society.' Another said: 'The 
Southern Methodist women lead all other Church groups 
in social insight and methods.'" 

Under the wise leadership of Mrs. W. A. Newell the 
social service activity of the women has been related to 
that of the Board of Temperance and Social Service. 
This has made possible larger opportunities for study 
and conference regarding the outstanding social prob- 
lems of the South. Thus for the past twenty years, the 

Women and the Kingdom 233 

women of the Church have made a definite effort to 
bring in the Kingdom through the Christianization of 
the social order. 

Inter-Racial Work 

The inter-racial work is a special form of social service, 
conducted by the Woman's Missionary Council, which 
deserves a large place in its history. This work did not 
take definite form within the organization until 1920, 
when a commission was appointed. This was the result 
of an educational process which had been carried on 
through a number of years. It was a definite effort to 
lead the women of both races to understanding and to 
cooperative service. The action of 1920 is as follows: 

Resolved: 1. That as Christians and workers in God's 
Kingdom we accept his challenge to show forth his 
power to settle racial differences, thereby setting before 
the whole world an example of the power of Christianity 
to meet inter-racial crises everywhere. 

2. That we set ourselves definitely to the task by 
the creation of a commission on race relationship. 

The commission began its work at once with Mrs. 
Luke Johnson, of Atlanta, Ga.,as chairman, Mrs. A. B. 
Smith, vice-chairman, and Miss Estelle Haskin, secre- 

he first step taken was an attempt to understand the 
problems of the women of the Negro reace through first- 
hand contacts. With this in mind, two representatives 
of the commission attended in Tuskegee in 1920, the 
bienn 1 meeting of the National Federation of Colored 
Women's Clubs. Eight hundred representative Negro 
women were present. At the close of this conference, 
upon request of the commission's representatives, ten 
of the women remained for an informal conference re- 

234 Women and the Kingdom 

garding the outstanding hindrances to good will be- 
tween the white and Negro races. A whole day was 
spent together in frank discussion, and as a result the 
Southern Commission on Interracial Cooperation 
financed a meeting which was held in Memphis in the fall 
of that same year. It was inter-denominational and was 
the first large meeting ever held in the South where 
white and colored women sat together to discuss their 
common problems. Mrs. Luke Johnson, the chairman 
of the Council Commission, was largely responsible for 
the initiation and success of this epoch-making occasion. 
The findings of the Memphis meeting were used as a 
basis for study throughout the South. Another most 
important result was the formation of an inter-denomi- 
national and inter-racial committee as a part of the 
Southern Inter-Racial Commission. 

The Commission's work during the first year in creat- 
ing good will was so outstanding that It was given favor- 
able commendation by the Federal Council of the 
Churches of Christ in America, by the official papers of 
some Influential Negro colleges, and by The Crisis. The 
value of this whole movement was that colored women 
had been given a chance to express themselves freely to 
white women who wanted to understand their aspira- 
tions. The Commission became a bond of sympathy. 

The activities of the second year were not less out- 
standing. The work already projected was carried for- 
ward, and in addition the Council's Commission held 
state denominational meetings In connection with the 
state conferences, put on by the Southern Commission 
on Inter-Racial Cooperation. Mrs. W. A. Newell, as 
superintendent of social service, was present at the 
meetings, working with Mrs. Johnson. The conference 

Women and the Kingdom 235 

officers and district secretaries were greatly helped in 
understanding the policies and programs. By the close 
of 1921, the Federal Council of the Churches of Christ 
in America had set up a Commission on Church and 
Race Relations and because of the outstanding service 
of the Council's Commission, the Council president and 
the chairman of the Commission were asked to serve as 
members of the Federal Council Commission. The 
Home Missions Council and the Council of Women for 
Home Missions called attention to the work that the 
Woman's Missionary Council Commission had under- 
taken. The greatest forward step in 1922 was an inter- 
racial conference, held in Atlanta, where twenty con- 
ferences, east of the Mississippi, were represented. At 
this time principles and methods were stressed. The 
Commission directed the auxiliaries in a study of the 
Negro Church, school, and home. 

It was decided by the Woman's Missionary Council 
m 1925 to continue, through the Social Service De- 
partment, the inter-racial work, the foundation of which 
had been so thoroughly laid by the Commission. Mrs. 
W. A. Newell, having worked with the Commission, 
was prepared to carry it forward as the superintendent 
of social service. Close contact with the Southern 
Commission on Inter- Racial Cooperation was continued 
and the conferences and auxiliaries carried forward their 
work along the lines and principles established. In 1926 
the Council sent two representatives to the Women's 
Inter- Racial Conference at Eaglesmere, Pa., which was 
enterprised by the I nter-RacIal Commission of the Federal 
Council of Churches of the Christ in America. The 
findings of this meeting were studied by conferences and 
auxiliaries. Inter-racial committees have been formed in 

236 Women and the Kingdom 

many of the auxiliaries. Practical lines of cooperative 
work with colored people have been initiated by some 
auxiliaries and successfully carried forward in keeping 
with the principles of inter-racial cooperation that were 
established by the Commission. 



Restatement of Advance 

In the preceding chapters, we have sought to portray 
the advancement of the women of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, South, during the past fifty years in mak- 
ing their contribution to the extension of the cause of 
Christ throughout the world. We have noted how they 
organized for special service at home and in other lands 
and how they have continually strengthened that organ- 
ization to make it adequate for this great task. We 
have seen the educational processes that have been de- 
veloped in order that they might intelligently carry for- 
ward their undertaking. Through the establishment of 
educational institutions and social-evangelistic work 
they have sought to meet the needs as they have under- 
stood them at home and abroad. We have realized that 
all this has been done not as a substitute for what was 
their responsibility as Church members to the regular 
missionary activity of the Church, but as a "plus" con- 
tribution which they as women have sought to make. 
As the half century of this missionary endeavor draws 
to a close, it is fitting to contemplate the results of wom- 
an's activity and make special note of the greatest 
sources of inspiration for the task just ahead. The mis- 
sionary sisterhood that has been created around the 
world is indeed the outstanding inspiration. 


238 Women and the Kingdom 

Sisterhood in Service 

Were we privileged to go to China, Manchuria, Korea, 
Japan, Brazil, Mexico, Cuba, Africa, Belgium, Poland, 
and Czechoslovakia, we would find the women of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, organized in mis- 
sionary societies. They have the same rnotives and pur- 
poses and, in most cases, the same methods of activity 
that are found in the societies in the United States. In 
China, Korea, Japan, Brazil, Mexico, Cuba, and Poland 
we would find not only local societies, but fully organ- 
ized districts and conference societies. In Brazil the 
three Conference Societies (Brazil, Central Brazil, and 
South Brazil) are making plans to unite in an organi- 
zation similar to the Woman's Missionary Council. 

The first legislation by the Woman's Missionary 
Council regarding missionary societies on foreign fields 
was passed in 1918 as follows: 

It is gratifying to note that the women in Brazil 
and China showed broadness of view and spirit by 
voting to give ten per cent of their funds to some 
line of work under the Woman's Missionary Council. 
The committee approves the constitutions presented 
by the women of China and of Brazil and presents the 
following recommendations: 

1. That we welcome with pleasure these organiza- 
tions and begin the formation of organizations in other 

2. We recommend that each Mission Conference be 
granted the privilege of adapting to the needs and con- 
ditions of that field the constitution and by-laws of 
Conference and auxiliary societies prepared by the 
Woman's Missionary Council. 

Women and the Kingdom 239 

3. That in order to keep in close touch with Con- 
ference Societies in the mission fields the Conference 
corresponding secretaries and treasurers of said societies 
send annual reports to the Administrative Secretary of 
the Foreign Department and to the Treasurer of the 
Woman's Missionary Council. 

4. That all Societies may feel a vital connection with 
the work of the Woman's Missionary Council each so- 
ciety thus formed shall appropriate not less than ten 
per cent of its funds to some line of work projected by 
the Woman's Missionary Council, the direction of this 
ten per cent being left to the society itself. 

5. Whereas the President and Corresponding Sec- 
retary are members of the Woman's Missionary Coun- 
cil, we recommend that alternates from Mission Con- 
ferences be elected from among missionaries at home on 

Somewhat later, because of uncertalnity existing on 
the fields as to who could be elected alternates, an action 
was taken to the effect that only nationals who were 
members of the executive committee of their con- 
ferences, and only missionaries who represent the Wom- 
an's Missionary Council on the fields, would be eligible 
to be elected as alternates to the Council. 

As a result of these actions the conference missionary 
societies of other lands have had legal representatives 
at all Council sessions. Thus they have taken their 
place as an organic part of the body. There have been 
a few occasions when some of the foreign conferences 
have been represented by their own officers ; these have 
been red-letter days in the Council. In 1918 Mrs. Z. 
U. Tsiang, treasurer of the China Conference Society, 

^Annual Report, Woman's Missiottary Council, 1917-18, page 28. 

240 Women and the Kingdom 

was present. Before her return she visited all the dis- 
tricts of the North Alabama Conference; she was a 
great inspiration in this country and took a fervent mes- 
sage back to her own Conference. Since that time others 
have represented their conferences as follows: in 1925, 
Miss Vong Pau Sze, corresponding secretary of the 
China Conference Society; in 1927, Mrs. D. C. Chaves, 
president of the South Brazil Conference; in 1924, Mrs. 
Eliza de Pascoe, president of the Mexico Conference; 
in 1928, Mrs. Eleanor Yun, president of the Korea Con- 
ference, Mrs. E. S. de Pascoe, president of Mexico Con- 
ference and Miss Y. B. Djti, superintendent of social ser- 
vice in the China Conference. The following fraternal 
messengers were present at the Jubilee Council meeting: 
Miss Vong Pau Sze, China; Miss Hamake Hirose, Japan; 
Miss Angela Montes de Oca, Cuba; Miss Louiza May, 
Poland; Mrs. Emily Dobes, Czechoslovakia; Miss Irany 
Andrade, Brazil; Mrs. Ester Hernandez, Mexico. After 
the Jubilee Council meeting these fraternal messengers 
were the guests of various conference societies, thus 
having the opportunity of first-hand contact in the 
homes and churches, and with conference, district, and 
auxiliary women. 

The missionary women of other lands have received 
the preparatory literature and, having adapted it to 
their needs, are putting on the Jubilee celebration. 
They, as well as auxiliaries in America, held retreats for 
prayer on the morning of the opening of the Jubilee 
Council meeting in Nashville. Fraternal messengers 
have been appointed to attend the Jubilee meetings in 
some of the mission fields. Miss Esther Case represent- 
ed the Jubilee in the Orient in 1927, and Mrs. F. F. 
Stephens went as fraternal messenger to Belgium, Po- 

Women and the Kingdom 241 

land, and Czechoslovakia. In 1928, Miss Daisy Davies 
will go as messenger to Cuba, Miss Mabel Howell to 
Brazil, and Mrs. F. F. Stephens to Mexico. It is not 
possible to estimate the inspiration that has come from 
these contacts with women of other lands. It is the be- 
ginning of a new day for which women have longed and 

Creative Forces 

The growth of the Woman's Missionary Societies in 
other lands has been gradual, the most rapid develop- 
ment being within the past ten years. As groups of 
Christian women have been formed in the various 
churches, it has been natural that they should feel the 
need of some channel for service and self-expression. 
The missionaries guiding them have turned to the mis- 
sionary society as the only authorized form of woman's 
work in the Church, and have sought to interpret its 
purposes and privileges. The young people in the schools 
have also wanted some form of organization, and the 
Junior or Young People's Missionary Society has met 
their needs. In many schools, Epworth Leagues have 
been formed. Both evangelistic and educational mis- 
sionaries have been active in fostering these organiza- 

The greatest inspiration that has come to women of 
other lands has been the result of contact with the 
leaders of the missionary organization. The visits of 
Miss Belle H. Bennett and Miss Mabel Head to the 
Orient in 1914-15, of Miss Maria Layng Gibson, and 
Miss Bennett to Brazil, of Miss Daisy Davies and Mrs. 
F. F. Stephens to Europe, and of Miss Esther Case to 
Cuba, Brazil, and Mexico, and later in 1919 and 1922 of 

242 Women and the Kingdom 

Miss Mabel K. Howell to the Orient have helped to 
interpret the meaning of the missionary organization. 
Miss Bennett was a special inspiration to the women 
of all the fields that she visited. She made an effort to 
visit as many societies and groups of women as it was 
possible to gather together. 

Training for Service in Other Lands 

To the women in the United States the missionary 
society has been a channel of self-expression. Being 
members of churches where the leadership has been 
largely in the hands of men, they have felt the need of 
some organization where women could hear their own 
voices, learn to pray, and engage in distinctive service. 
There is no motive that has led women to organize in 
America that has not been felt by women in other coun- 
tries. The call to missionary service is being heard by 
the Christian womanhood of all nations. It is interest- 
ing that a number of the new conference societies have 
chosen Africa as their foreign mission field, because it 
presents the deepest need of womanhood. 

Neither the Oriental nor the Latin-American woman 
has even as great an opportunity for self-expression as 
has been afforded the American woman. They have 
been closely kept within the walls of their homes and 
many have been taught from childhood that their posi- 
tion in life is inferior. The message of the gospel has 
revealed to them that there is equality of life in Jesus 
Christ. As they entered upon their new life in the 
Church, they were timid and shrinking, so they eagerly 
seized upon the opportunity given by the missionary 
society for Christian training. In the missionary so- 
cieties they find opportunity for Bible and mission 

Women and the Kingdom 243 

study. In some cases the stories of missionary heroes 
have been translated and used for study. Programs and 
program material have been prepared. Women mis- 
sionaries, including missionaries* wives, have helped in 
developing this work. 

The social service department of the Woman's Society 
has been especially educative; a social conscience has 
been created among women. They are concerned and 
feel themselves responsible for community problems. 
This has been an untold gain to the cause of Christ. 

Perhaps the greatest value is in the sense of unity; 
there has been formed a real league of nations among the 
women of the world. When the Secretary visited China 
in 1922, she was present at the meeting of the Annual 
Conference. On that occasion women were seated as 
delegates for the first time. This was the result of the 
victory of laity rights in the General Conference. These 
women were fully aware of this and, when preparing for 
the memorial service, they insisted that the name of 
Miss Belle Bennett be listed with those of the preachers 
who had passed away that year and that Miss Howell 
speak regarding the life and work of their leader. 
They said: "She was our Miss Bennett as well as yours." 

Woman's Missionary Societies 

™. „ . ^ . In October of 1927, the China 

The Society in „^ , t.*. . o . 

Ch' 1917 192S Woman s Missionary Society cele- 
brated its tenth anniversary. It was 
as great an occasion to them as the fiftieth anniversary 
is to the woman of America. In writing the anniversary 
report to her Conference, the corresponding secretary 
said: "What a work! What a sisterhood it is! The 
Jubilee in America! The tenth anniversary in China! 

244 Women and the Kingdom 

Americans working in China! China working in Africa, 
and the women of the whole wide world joining hands 
to bring in the Kingdom of God!" 

In the year 1917, a small group of Chinese women, 
representing ten auxiliaries from Shanghai, Soochow, 
and Huchow Districts, who had been deeply stirred by 
the visit of Miss Bennett and Miss Head, met in Moore 
Memorial Church, Shanghai, and organized a confer- 
ence society. By the end of the first year these ten 
groups had increased to forty and the membership to 
one thousand. At the anniversary in 1927, just ten 
ysars later, there were ninety-three societies and four 
thousand members. There were more members en- 
rolled in the missionary society than in the Church it- 
self. The women were publishing their own missionary 

The first year the Society pledged one-tenth of its 
funds to the work of the Woman's Missionary Council 
in Africa, one-tenth to conference expense, and eight- 
tenths to home mission work in the far distant Province 
of Yunnan. In the ten years the sum of $16,772.67 has 
been collected; $6,000 for Yunnan and $1,700 for Africa. 
The China Society has adopted the plan of a stated 
offering, the amount to be determined by each indi- 
vidual. The most unique source of income is through 
their Memory Books. The China Conference has two 
handsome volumes of Memory Books, one for adults and 
one for children, on the pages of which are inscribed the 
names of the life members and those presented for the 
memorial roll. Engraved certificates are given in return 
for the money subscribed. This Memorial Roll makes 
an effective appeal in China, where the dead are given 
special honors. "In non-Christian families large sums 

Women and the Kingdom 245 

are used at every funeral for ghost money; this, with 
other offerings, is burned for the use of the dead. Chris- 
tians cannot engage in such rites, and yet their refusal 
to participate often brands th^m as stingy and unfilial. 
They now pay into the missionary society the money 
that would have been used for these practices and re- 
ceive in return a handsome certificate that can be dis- 
played at the funeral and can be carried in a chair of 
honor in the funeral procession." ^ 

The story of the tenth anniversary thank offering is 
one that should stir the heart of every woman in Ameri- 
ca. The Nanking Bible Teachers' Training School was 
the object of this special gift. The goal set was $1,000 
(Mexican) over and above the regular income. The 
women prepared seven hundred individual mite boxes 
and larger boxes for auxiliaries to receive this thank 
offering. Meanwhile the recent war situation developed, 
and they feared greatly that the offering would be seri- 
ously affected. The general looting in Nanking had al- 
ready resulted in the loss of a number of the mite boxes 
containing precious gifts. When this news was received 
by other societies, more fortunately located, like the 
auxiliary at Moore Memorial Church, in Shanghai, they 
more than doubled their gifts. At the anniversary meet- 
ing October 10, 1927, when the mite boxes were opened, 
there was $2,000 instead of the $1,000 pledged. "From 
every quarter the anniversary gifts came pouring in, 
coppers by the bushel, coppers that took days to count, 
and dimes and dollars, and a few fat checks." The wom- 
en of China also had learned the value of small offerings 
systematically given. Can we sense the thrill? Not 

^Report of Anniversary of China Conference Woman's Missionary 

246 Women and the Kingdom 

only was there success in offerings; Miss Tai Dzong I, 
had been duly consecrated and sent to Manchuria. As 
the love and prayers of the women of America followed 
Miss Lochie Rankin when she sailed for China, so the 
love and prayers of the women of China followed their 
first missionary to Manchuria. 

The Woman's Missionary Society of China has pecul- 
iar problems and distinctive methods. In many of the 
country auxiliaries and in some of the city auxiliaries 
there have been many women who could not read and 
write. The societies have formed classes and assumed 
the work of instruction as a missionary activity. A 
special feature of the auxiliary work in China has been 
in the department of local evangelism. Women organ- 
ize themselves definitely for such work, holding cottage 
prayer meetings in the homes. Over six hundred women 
were reported in 1927 as giving regular systematic vol- 
unteer service in this way. Wong Ta Ta, the first girl 
pupil of the first girls' school in China, and the daughter 
of the first Bible woman, has been ordained by the China 
Annual Conference, as the first and only woman (local) 
preacher in Southern Methodism. She is very active 
in evangelistic work at Moore Memorial Church, Shang- 

The China Conference Missionary Society has had 
two outstanding presidents. The first was Mrs. K. T. 
Yang, a graduate of Virginia School. She was a most 
beautiful Christian character, able, gentle, tactful, un- 
obtrusive, and ardently devoted to Jesus Christ. She 
served for five years and then, because of ill health, re- 
signed. She passed away during the year of the tenth 
anniversary. The second president is Mrs. Z. U, Tsiang 
a graduate of McTyeire and the principal of Davidson 

Women and the Kingdom 247 

Gids' School. She is the first Chinese woman in South- 
ern Methodism to be made principal of a missionary 
boarding school. As has already been noted, she was a 
member of the 1918 Council meeting in Memphis. She 
thoroughly understands every detail of missionary work, 
and is abundantly able to be a spiritual guide to the 
women of the Church. 

^ . . „ The Conference Woman's Mission- 

Society tn Korea . . 

105!/) toyji ^^y Society or Korea was organized 

in Chongkyo Church, Seoul, in 1920. 
It was the result of small beginnings in many places. In 
1913, one of the oldest Bible women organized a society 
in the Wonsan District. This was a new experience for 
the women; they had never held ofifice before, but they 
f el t the call of God and sought a channel through which to 
serve. The Bible women who joined the Society agreed 
to give one-twentieth of their salaries (many were re- 
ceiving only five dollars a month) to the cause of mis- 
sions. By the end of the first year they were able to 
support a Bible woman to work in unevangelized vil- 
lages. About the same time similar beginnings were 
made in Songdo and Seoul. 

These isolated groups united in 1920 in the meeting 
at Seoul, and formed a Conference Society. They, too, 
had felt the inspiration of Miss Bennett's visit. Not 
having any other precedent, these women naturally fol- 
lowed the rules and by-laws of the sister society in 
America. Miss Naomi Choi was their first president, 
remaining in ofifice two years, until her missionary zeal 
burned so intensely that she volunteered to go as their 
missionary. She was appointed to far-oflF Siberia to 
labor among the Korean women who with their families 
had gone to the great North Country to escape Japanese 

248 Women and the Kingdom 

rule. In 1922 Mrs. Eleanor Yun was elected president; 
she represented her Conference at the Jubilee Council 
Meeting in 1928. 

The Missionary Society in Korea has had a very rapid 
growth, having a larger membership than the one in 
China. In 1927, the Conference Society reported two 
hundred and eighty-six auxiliaries with 4,823 members, 
including young people and children; there is a society 
in every congregation. In Korea the young people's and 
children's work has received much attention, there was 
in 1927 six young people's societies, fifty-seven junior 
and twenty-eight baby divisions. 

The women of the Missionary Society in Korea send 
a tenth of their funds to Africa, through the Woman's 
Missionary Council; they contributed also to the Ben- 
nett Memorial. In addition to the support of their mis- 
sionary in Siberia they maintain four home missionaries, 
supply a scholarship in the Woman's Biblical Seminary, 
and aid in the support of the Door of Hope in Seoul. 
Missionaries and Bible women have been most active 
in promoting the work of the Society; in many cases the 
Bible women are the district secretaries. No more he- 
roic foreign missionary could be found than Miss Naomi 
Choi. When Miss Howell met her at the Annual Con- 
ference meeting in Vladivostok, she was itinerating from 
place to place, gathering together the lonely women and 
girls so far from their beloved Korea, and keeping them 
true to Jesus Christ; she was directing the visitation of 
more than twelve Bible women. She even suffered im- 
prisonment at the hands of the Bolsheviks. She was in 
reality a supervisor of woman's work, cooperating with 
Rev. J. S. Ryang. Miss Kate Cooper reveals the value 
of the Korean Missionary Society when she says: "The 

Women and the Kingdom 249 

Missionary Society has been the only means of develop- 
ing the' churchwomen for the country villages; they 
have no other opportunity for growth and service." 

_,. „ .^ . Inasmuch as the Japan Methodist 

The Society m . -"..^ . , , ^ 

T ,««^ ,/i^o Church IS organically mdependent, 

Japan, 1917-1928 , ._. ° ^ . ^ K^- ■ 

the Woman s Lonterence Mission- 
ary Society is, of necessity, in a different relationship to 
the Council. Oneness of purpose, however, in extending 
the cause of Christ makes a oneness of feeling and in- 
terest. There are in Japan two Conference Societies, 
the Eastern and Western, the Western being the one re- 
lated to the Southern Methodist territory. This West- 
ern Conference usually holds its meeting at the same 
time and place as the Annual Conference. It was or- 
ganized about 1917. The woman's auxiliary in the 
Central Church at Kobe has been the leading auxiliary 
of the Western Conference. Miss Maud Bonnell took 
an interest in organizing the women of this Church for 
missions long before there was a conference society. 
When the Western Conference Society was organized 
the late Mrs. H. Yoshizaki, of the Central Church aux- 
iliary, became its president. The president is now Mrs. 
Nishikawa. Miss Okujo, the corresponding secretary, 
is planning to come to the United States for study at 
Scarritt College. 

Since 1920 the Japanese Conference Societies have 
been supporting a missionary, Bible women, and a kin- 
dergarten in Dairen, Manchura. Rev. S. Kihara, and 
Rev. H. U. Yanagiware have been the missionaries. 
The Society also supports Bible women in other needy 
places and scholarships in mission schools for needy 
boys and girls. 

The women of the Japan missionary Society have 

250 Women and the Kingdom 

problems similar to those of tne early days in America. 
In most of the Churches there is a society called the 
Woman's Meeting which is really like our Ladies' Aid. 
It takes care of the local interests of the Church. The 
women interested in missions are also members of this 
Woman's Meeting. The missionary dues are collected 
at this meeting and sent to the conference treasurer. 
There is no developed educational missionary program 
in the local Church. The missionary activities are 
stressed, however, in District and Annual Conferences. 
The women in Japan have not found it easy to assume 
full responsibility for missions, but they feel the call to 
service and find themselves gaining in strength as they 
enter open doors. One of the ofificers, in writing of the 
work, recently, said: "God is entering into the hearts of 
the women of the Church, and they are beginning to 
feel that he is saying to each one: 'Go and tell the sweet 
old story of Jesus and his love for the world that is dying 
for a little bit of love.' When we feel like this and think 
of Jesus teaching 'love thy neighbor as thyself we can- 
not idly sit down and dream worldly pleasures. Our 
work is little, but as long as our life is built on the solid 
rock of Jesus, he will help us and lead us to do the 
greater work. We are trying to follow the footsteps of 
Jesus. May God bless and watch both you and all of us, 
though we are far apart." 

. Until about 1919, Ladies' Aid 

,* . ««./» ,/»^o Societies had been fostered by pas- 

Mextco, 1919-1928 , • . • 

tors and missionaries, and were to 

be found in almost all the Churches in Mexico. The 
women were not entirely satisfied with this form of serv- 
ice. In 1919, when Miss Esther Case, as secretary of 
the Board of Missions, visited Mexico, she attended the 


Women and the Kingdom 251 

Annual Conference and urged the women to federate 
these Ladies* Aid Societies, making a Conference Society 
with a missionary program. The women responded 
heartily to this proposal. They felt that it would be 
a decided advantage to them and the work to become 
connectional, related organically to the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council. The Conference Society was organized 
with Miss Sara Betancourt as president. She was suc- 
ceeded by Mrs. Eliza S. de Pascoe, who, in 1924, repre- 
sented her Conference in the J Council meeting at 

Beginning (in 1919) with nine auxiliaries, the Mexico 
Conference Society had (in 1928) twenty-five, with four 
well-organized districts. The Mexico Conference So- 
ciety publishes an official organ, the Aniorcha Misionera, 
which is a magazine of twelve pages carrying missionary 
inspiration and program material ; it also has a Literary 
and a Home page. The Conference Society, when but one 
year old, took the support of a school in Korea as its for- 
eign missionary work. The large country day school at 
Wha Chun, Korea, was assigned to them, and it bears the 
name Mexico, The society has taken a special interest 
in the young women trained in the Bible Department at 
Roberts College, Saltillo, consecrating them for service 
at their annual meetings; they follow these young wom- 
en with love and prayers, as they go out into evangelis- 
tic work. 

The Conference Society In Mexico has inter-denomi- 
national and inter-national contacts. It is a member of 
the National Union of Woman's Christian Societies in 
Mexico, and has contacts with Latin-American women 
in other lands through the Prayer League that was or- 
ganized at the Congress of Christian Work in South 

252 Women and the Kingdom 

America, held In Montevideo, Uruguay, In 1925. Mrs. 
Pascoe, the conference president, and Miss Ester Her- 
nandez , the fraternal messenger, were present at the Jubi- 
lee Council meeting. Mrs. F. F. Stephens attended the 
Mexico Conference meeting in the spring of 1928, as 
Jubilee messenger from the United States. 

„, - . ^ . Miss Layona Glenn is largely re- 

The Society in •, , r , . . i , 

T> •. .rt.^ .rt-^o sponsible tor the organization ot the 
Brazil, 1916-1928 ; , ,,. • o • r t^ 

Woman s M issionary Society of Bra- 
zil. Her position, for so many years, as missionary sec- 
retary for Woman's Work in Brazil, gave her the oppor- 
tunity of going from place to place, thus becoming ac- 
quainted with the women of the churches. Miss Glenn 
realized that the Ladies' Aid Societies, having no pro- 
gram and no definite motive except to help themselves 
and their local churches, and no literature, lacked the 
essential educational values for the development of 
Christian womanhood. The women were timid and 
shrinking. They had never heard their own voices in 
public meetings. They needed the impetus to a larger 
and more constraining motive. 

On April 20, 1916, the outstanding women of the vari- 
ous churches, representing sixteen Ladies' Aids, gathered 
in the city of Sao Paulo to organize a connectional mis- 
sionary society. Miss Glenn had translated into Portu- 
guese the constitution and by-laws of the societies in the 
United States. Miss Glenn, in writing of this organi- 
zation meeting, says: "This was serious business, and 
the women realized it. They could think deeply even if 
they were too timid to stand up and express their 
thoughts. Sometimes it was necessary for the presiding 
officer to leave the chair to sit by the side of the one 

Women and the Kingdom 253 

speaking in order to hear what she was saying, but the 
business went forward." 

The women requested Miss Glenn to become the con- 
ference president, but she refused, stating that the offices 
in the Conference Society should be held by Brazilian 
women, and Miss Francisca de Carvalho was elected. 
At that time there was but one conference in Brazil. 
Two years later, just as the Society was becoming es- 
tablished, three annual conferences were organized. 
The majority of the officers were living in what became 
the Central Brazil Conference. Miss Emma Christine 
was requested by the bishop in charge to cooperate with 
the Brazilian women in the organization of the Brazil 
Conference Missionary Society. This was accomplished 
in 1920, when Mrs. Ethelvina Becker was elected presi- 
dent. In 1924 the South Brazil Conference Society was 
organized with Mrs. O. Chaves as president. 

The Woman's Missionary Society work in Brazil has 
so developed that to-day there are in the three con- 
ferences one hundred and ten auxilaries, with a member- 
ship of five thousand. During this time these societies 
have raised $15,000. Brazil was the first mission con- 
ference to organize. The Brazilian women have been 
ambitious in their program of service. They have taken 
the entire responsibility of many of the parochial 
schools. The Central Brazil Conference Society is sup- 
porting a girls' boarding school at Biriguy. The Brazil 
Conference Society has undertaken the founding of a 
conference orphanage. One of the distinctive features 
of the work in Brazil is a children's magazine, the Bem- 
Te- Vi, edited by M iss Leila Epps. M iss Epps also coop- 
erates with Brazilian women in the preparation of pro- 
grams and program material for the missionary societies. 

254 Women and the Kingdom 

The benefits of this organized work are shown by Miss 
Glenn: "I sat in the audience at the last annual meeting 
(1926) and listened to an appeal from the retiring presi- 
dent of the Brazil Conference Missionary Society. She 
stood on the platform before a packed audience, chal- 
lenging the young people to service. She spoke in a 
clear voice that carried to the farthest corner of the 
large auditorium. I could not help thinking that it was 
a long way from the day of our organization to this night 
when this once timid woman was clearly sounding the 
clarion call to service, modestly but unafraid." 

rwM, a ' ^ • The Woman's Missionary Society 

The Society tn r /- i i i r , i T.,r- 

r h 1922 1928 Cuba has been fostered by Miss 

Annie Churchill. Miss Norwood 
Wynn's visit to that field in 1921 was a great inspiration 
to the women of the churches in Cuba. In reporting 
this visit she wrote; "The cordiality with which workers 
and members receive me everywhere and the hearty 
cooperation they extend will always remain a grateful 
memory. Seven volunteer circles and seven missionary 
societies were organized during my five weeks in Cuba." 
Miss Case, in speaking of Miss Wynn's work, said: 
"Wherever she has gone the students have responded to 
her call for life service. She has also organized woman's 
missionary societies, and she writes that all that the 
young people and the women in Cuba need is to have 
the opportunity presented to them, and they are glad 
to offer themselves for service." The Antorcha Misionera 
the {Missionary Torch) was planned for the women of 
Cuba as well as Mexico and contains program material 
for their missionary societies. The Cuba Conference 
Society was organized in Cardinas, Cuba, February 24, 
1922, at the session of the Annual Conference, with Ana 

Women and the Kingdom 255 

Rosa Nonel (now Mrs. Miguel Soto) as president and 
Miss Annie Churchill as corresponding secretary. The 
Missionary Society in Cuba is still largely a federated 
Ladies' Aid Society. It sends ten per cent of its money 
to the Council to be used in the regular work, but does 
not have a distinct missionary program. This will un- 
doubtedly come in the near future as the women learn 
the power of federated effort. 

The Cuba Conference Society sent Miss Angela 
Montes de Oca as fraternal messenger to the Jubilee 
Council meeting. This Conference has worked out a 
splendid program for the Jubilee year. Miss Daisy 
Davies will represent the Council in Cuba as Jubilee 
fraternal messenger. 

The Society in In January, 1919, a meeting was 

„ ^ „ , called, by the women missionaries 

Congo Beige ^,7 , xt h , 

Africa, 1919-1928 ^^ Wembo Nyama, to tell the wom- 
en of the Church about the mission- 
ary society, hoping that they would be interested in or- 
ganizing. The majority welcomed the idea, and Febru- 
ary 14, 1919, the first African auxiliary of the Woman's 
Missionary Council was organized with a membership 
of forty-five, including the three women missionaries — 
Miss Etta Lee Woolsey, Miss Etha Mills, and Miss 
Kathron Wilson. It was decided that the dues should 
be one egg a month or its equivalent, which is one cent 
in money. Eggs, especially Sunday eggs, have always 
been legal tender with missionary women. There were 
few missionary societies in the early days in America 
that did not fall back on this method of finance. The 
first mission study of the African women was about the 
women and customs of Korea and a part of their pledge 
was directed to the support of missionary work in that 

256 Women and the Kingdom 

country. In April, 1919, the idea of supporting a native 

evangelist, was presented and was heartily approved. 

Mundadi, an unusual evangelist, was chosen as their 

special. He was praying at the time for the chief in the 

heathen village where he was preaching and asked the 

women of the missionary society to join him in this 

prayer. Some months later the chief appeared at church 

and began to take a vital interest in the Christian 

religion. This made a deep impression upon the women ; 

it was the result of their first united effort. By July this 

society had fifty members. Soon they began to give 

freewill offerings in addition to their dues. A conference 

society in Africa has not yet been organized. 

rr^t. c • . ^ When Miss Daisy Da vies went 

The Society among . ^ 

„ .to Europe, as a representative of 

European and , ^ n ,r 

„ . „. the Centenary Movement, to aid 

Russian Women , t-. .- i i- r i i i 

the Polish relief, she was deeply 

impressed with the marvelous potentiality as well as 
aggressive ability of the churchwomen in Belgium, 
Poland, and Czechoslovakia. She talked to the influ- 
ential women about organized missionary work and ad- 
dressed large groups in the churches. She returned to 
America feeling that there was a great field for the work 
of the Woman's Missionary Society in Europe. Gradu- 
ally, missionary societies were developed in many of the 
churches, largely due to the leadership of women ap- 
pointed by the bishop of the field to give special atten- 
tion to woman's work. Among such able leaders were 
Miss Louiza May in Poland, Mrs. Joseph Dobes in 
Czechoslovakia, and Mrs. Thomas among the Flemish- 
and Mrs. Brunnarius among the French-speaking wom- 
en in Belgium. 

Another great inspiration came to the women of these 

Women and the Kingdom 257 

countries in the summer of 1927 when the Council presi- 
dent, Mrs. F. F. Stephens, while in Europe, carried 
Jubilee fraternal messages to each of these lands, Mrs. 
Stephens has the honor of being the fir^t Council officer 
to go to a conference missionary meeting in an aero- 
plane; she flew from Warsaw to Prague to meet the 
Czech women, a trip requiring twenty hours by train 
and only four by air. Mrs. Stephens organized an en- 
thusiastic conference society in Poland. She told an 
interesting story at the Council meeting illustrating how 
strange an idea it is in that country that women are 
capable of thinking for themselves. A Polish gentleman 
traveled two days to attend the conference organization 
meeting under the mistaken idea that he was a delegate. 
When he reached the seat of the conference, the Polish 
women informed him that it was a woman's meeting. 
To prove his right to attend, he announced that he had 
a letter of invitation. When he produced the letter and 
discovered that the communication was addressed to 
his wife and not to himself, he was amazed. 

No finer conception can be given of the meaning of 
the Woman's Missionary Society to the Russian women 
of Harbin, Manchuria, than to quote their Jubilee fra- 
ternal message, written March, 1928. It breathes the 
atmosphere of apostolic days. 

Oi(r Dear Sisters and Leaders in Christ: We, members of the 
Ladies' Missionary Societies of the Russian Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South, in Northern Manchuria, China, are rejoicing 
that we have the opportunity of sending you our sincere cordial 
greetings and our best wishes of full success in the great and 
noble work in the name of Christ. 

We are praying incessantly to our Lord God that he may 
bless all your undertakings and plans still in greater measure 
than he blessed them in the past glorious fifty years. Our prayers 


258 Women and the Kingdom 

are always with you. Our hope is to establish the most intimate 
contact and loving cooperation between American and Russian 
women, members of the same great world-wide Methodist 

We will never forget your constant generous support. Your 
representatives in the Russian work and our dear sisters who 
left us not so long ago — Mrs. Erwin, Miss Rumbough, Miss Sally 
Brown, and the late Miss Lillian Wahl — pointed out to us the 
ways of service, made us acquainted with the perfect methods 
of the work of the Ladies* Missionary Societies in the United 
States of America. 

Under their unfailing guidance and direct participation in this 
kind of work, the life of the Russian Ladies' Missionary Societies 
of the Methodist Church, South, in Northern Manchuria has 
not only strengthened, but is developing very successfully and is 

Having started in May, 1923, five years ago, the work of the 
Ladies' Missionary Societies of the Russian Methodist Episco- 
pal Church, South, has achieved the following results: The total 
number of actual members and coworkers in four Ladies' Mis- 
sionary Societies of the Russian Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, in Harbin, Tsitsikar, Chalantoon, and Manchuria reaches 
one hundred. 

During the five years of its existence $2,500 has been collected 
by the members. This money has been collected by means of 
paying membership fees, by collecting money in the Churches, 
among the friends of the Church, by arranging charitable shows 
at Easter, at which hand made articles were sold. 

The money collected was used for the needs of the Church, for 
rendering material assistance to the poor and needy, for remitting 
to the Leprosory in Hungchung, Korea, and for educating needy 
children in schools. 

Considerably greater success has been achieved by our Ladies' 
Missionary Societies in spiritual work. The vital life of the 
Russian Woman Methodist has been exceedingly lifted and en- 
nobled by the acceptance by Russian women of Christ as their 
personal Saviour. 

The greatest sufferings which the Russian people had to bear 
during the great World War and consequent Russian Revolution 
have been felt in the most cruel way by the Russian women, 

Women and the Kingdom 259 

who had to bear the burden which meant too much even for a 
man. The Russian woman mother is at present the only sup- 
porter of a family in many cases, since her husband, in many 
cases, is either an invalid of the World or Civil War or his knowl- 
edge, experience, and work are not required under the condition 
of the Soviet life in U. S. S. R. or abroad, where he lives, as an 
emigrant (exile). 

We cannot help mentioning that the energy of the Russian 
women and Russian wife in such cases is the only thing that is 
still preserving the resemblance of home, which has almost been 
destroyed by the new conditions of Soviet life, since the com- 
munists do not recognize Home, Family Life, Religion or Chris- 
tian Principles of Morality. 

Therefore, what an immeasurable happiness, joy, and peace is 
felt in a Russian home when a Russian wife and mother accepts 
Christ as her personal Saviour. In such cases the life of a Russian 
family is changed radically. What a happiness! what a joy! 
Tens of Russian families, in which fathers, husbands, and 
brothers have been turned to God through their wives, sisters, 
and daughters are sending you their brotherly thanks and their 
blessings. The most grievous events which have been quite 
common In the lives of families, where sin reigns, have entirely 
disappeared. T'he Holy Bible is the only guide in these 
renovated families in Christ which are shining with the light of 
their pure moral life In the darkness of the surrounding wickedness. 

We also cannot help sharing our greatest joy with you and let 
you know that three of our dearly loved in Christ Russian lady 
missionaries have entirely consecrated their lives to Christ, their 
names being as follows: Mrs. G. J. Krassnova, Miss N. N. 
Gantlmourova, and Miss O. F. Vassllyova. They have com- 
pleted their religious education under the guidance of Mrs. Erwin, 
Miss Rumbough, Miss Wahl, and Miss Brown; they also have 
been graduated from the former American Bible Institute founded 
by Pastor Erwin in Harbin. Besides, they have had good ex- 
perience In personal work. They are, together with Mrs. Brado- 
vltch, the leaders and teachers of the Children's Garden (kinder- 
garten) and a preparatory school In Harbin and most useful 
coworkers of the pastor of the Church. 

This is the brief account of what is the most essential In the 
religious and educational life of our Church here. Will you 

260 Women and the Kingdom 

accept us among your midst, our dear sisters. Will you teach us 
what we do not know yet? Will you take interest in the worn- 
out soul of a Russian woman, in her sufferings in the recent past 
and in her joys in the present new life? May God bless you all 
and preserve you for the joyful tidings of his Salvation! 

Your Sisters in Christ. 

Others in jj^ relating the story of the past fifty 

the Sisterhood years that splendid group of women of 
other lands who have served as evangelistic workers, 
teachers, and principals of mission schools should be in- 
cluded in the sisterhood. The report to the Woman's 
Missionary Council (in 1927) stated that there were one 
hundred and ninety-six Bible women, serving as women 
evangelists and six hundred and sixty teachers spending 
their lives in classrooms, instructing boys and girls and 
teaching them the meaning of a Christian life — in all 
eight hundred and fifty who have caught the spirit of 
Christian service. It is impossible to portray the in- 
fluence of this consecrated and trained group of Chris- 
tian workers. 

There are some interesting facts regarding these work- 
ers. In Europe there is one worker. Deaconess Louiza 
May, who was consecrated and appointed by the bishop; 
she has charge of an orphanage in Poland. In Japan the 
twenty-four Bible women are known as women evangel- 
ists; they receive their appointments from the bishop at 
the Annual Conference session. In Korea, the Bible 
women receive their appointments from a Bible Wom- 
an's Committee of the Korea Mission. In China, the 
Bible women attend the Annual Conference, but receive 
their appointments from a Bible Woman's Committee 
composed of missionaries and Chinese women. There 
are six deaconesses in China, graduates of the Nanking 

Women and the Kingdom 261 

Bible Teachers' Training School, who were consecrated 
and appointed by the bishop at the Annual Conference 

In China there is one woman who has been ordained 
a local preacher, Wong Ta Ta, of Shanghai. In Mexico, 
the young women evangelists, who graduate from the 
Bible Department of Roberts College, are consecrated 
at the Woman's Annual Conference session; they re- 
ceive their appointments from the bishop. 

All the mission schools supported by the Woman's 
Missionary Council in China, except McTyeire School, 
have Chinese women as principals. In the unsettled 
conditions of the past two years in China these splendid 
and able Christian women have met their responsibilities 
and have shown themselves to be real leaders and edu- 
cators. This development will come in other lands. It 
is also interesting that the Board of Missions set up by 
the China Annual Conference is composed of fifteen, a 
third of whom are women. The treasurer of this Board 
of Missions is a woman, the president of the Conference 

Thus during the fifty years women in many lands em- 
braced the gospel message, acquired training, and are 
taking their places in service with the Christian women 
of America. The women of China and Korea are send- 
ing a tenth of their funds to Africa ; the women of Mexico 
and Africa are sending their tenth to Korea ; the women 
of Japan are sending to Manchuria, China. All of them 
are carrying on home mission activities. To have de- 
veloped, during the fifty years, this fellowship in service 
justifies the statement that the women have made a 
vital contribution to the building of the Kingdom of 


Message of the Silver Jubilee 

In April, 1903, the Woman's Board of Foreign Mis- 
sions celebrated its Silver Jubilee. In referring to the 
occasion Mrs. F. A. Butler wrote: "This brief r6sum6 
of the work pledged and accomplished by the Woman's 
Board of Foreign Missions in twenty-five years of steady 
progress, in spite of many hindrances, brings us very 
close to the thought contained in the question: What 
will be the result of the next twenty-five years? We 
have passed the Silver Jubilee, what will be the signs of 
promise when those who continue the work shall reach 
the Golden Anniversary? Will iihey know and under- 
stand the difficulties through which we have passed? 
Will they wonder why Christians of to-day accomplished 
so little? Then perhaps the whole Church will be mis- 
sionary in spirit, as it should be now, and every other 
interest will be concentrated on the one thought that 
Jesus Christ came into the world for this one purpose, 
to bring all men into the Kingdom." * 

As the women of Southern Methodism look to the 
past, they are very grateful for their heritage. They do 
understand the difficulties through which these pioneers 
passed and they, too, have had their difficulties, difficul- 
ties unknown to the pioneers of twenty-five years ago. 
They do not wonder why those who went before ac- 

'Butler, Mrs. F. A., History of Woman's Foreign Missionary 
Society, page 165. 


Women and the Kingdom 263 

complished so little, but rather they marvel at the great- 
ness of their achievements, and breathe the deep prayer 
that in their day and generation they may labor as faith- 
fully and as well. 

At the close of the Golden Anniversary, it is fitting 
that the women of to-day should likewise pause and re- 
cord the signs of promise which mark the horizon. In 
looking forward Mrs. Butler recorded the hope that by 
the time of the Golden Anniversary "the whole Church 
would be missionary in spirit," She did not say what 
effect she thought that would have upon woman's work 
for woman. It remains for the women of to-day to 
evaluate the missionary outlook. 

Significance of Jerusalem Conference 

It is of supreme interest that the year 1928, the year 
of Jubilee for Woman's Work, is the year of the Jerusa- 
lem Conference, a conference of greater missionary sig- 
nificance than any previously held. This Conference 
has laid the foundation stones upon which the mission- 
ary structure of the next fifty years will be built. The 
major subjects under consideration at that Conference 
indicate what the outstanding factors of the missionary 
situation during the next fifty years are to be: The 
growth of industrialism in Asia, the relation of older to 
younger Churches, inter-racial relations, materialism, 
the neglected rural areas, international missionary coop- 
eration, and the Christian message, including attitudes 
toward non-Christian religions. When the record of the 
next fifty years shall have been written, certainly the 
adaptation of missionary methods and thinking, with 
regard to these new factors, will be outstanding. 

264 Women and the Kingdom 

Commission on Reevaluation 

It is also significant that the Woman's Missionary 
Council set as one of its goals for the Jubilee year the 
reevaluation of its task. They stated it thus: "All past 
values and achievements should be made sources of in- 
spiration for the future. Since women to-day have 
greater opportunities for education and world contacts 
than ever before, and therefore should have a clearer 
world vision, since the world itself is a wholly different 
world from that in which we began our work and formu- 
lated our task fifty years ago, since the Church of which 
we are a part has grown and developed in all lands, and 
since trained leadership is available as never before, one 
of our Jubilee objectives should be to reevaluate our task 
in order to find, through the leadership of God's Spirit, 
his plan for us in the future." The Executive Committee 
of the Council in November, 1927, appointed a Commis- 
sion on Reevaluation, composed of fifteen women. They 
have been studying the foreign and home missionary 
tasks and their organization, at the home base, in the 
light of the new day. Their findings thus far have been 
published in a pamphlet. The Reevaluation of our Mis- 
sionary Task. Meanwhile conference societies and aux- 
iliaries, guided by the Commission, are carrying on simi- 
lar studies. 

New Factors in the Missionary Situation 

Many significant factors affecting the missionary situ- 
ation to-day were not evident fifty years ago; they have 
appeared as vital issues during the past decade. They 
will have a very definite bearing upon missionary ac- 
tivity in the years to come. 

Women and the Kingdom 265 

„ ^ . . In the first place, missions to- 

Unredeemed Areas , . , it. 

, , ., day are conceived not so largely in 

of Life , . , . ^ -^ , 

geographical terms as in terms ot 

unredeemed areas of life. The most pagan country in- 
cluded in the unredeemed areas is Race Relations. It is 
practically untouched by the teachings of Jesus Christ; 
it has no geographical boundaries; it is one of the great- 
est mission fields of the future; it calls for pioneers. The 
continent of Materialism has yet to be redeemed before 
the Kingdom of God can come on earth. Both in Ameri- 
ca and across the seas men's spiritual vision is blinded 
by it. There is another great heathen country called 
Industrialism into which few missionaries of the cross 
have ever penetrated. Some even wonder if Christ died 
to save it. It is to-day a dark continent. It extends 
across the world and is neither Oriental nor Occidental. 
The blackest of all unredeemed countries is War. It, 
too, seems to have no boundaries; it endangers the life 
and happiness of all mankind. The people who are in 
it do not seem to realize that Jesus lived and died to 
save the whole of life and that every human personality 
is sacred in his sight. Some have dared, recently, to 
enter it with the gospel message; only the most heroic 
souls will volunter for service in this dark land. 

America has a marvelous opportunity to demonstrate 
the power of the gospel of Jesus Christ in saving these 
unredeemed areas. To-day, more than ever, what a mis- 
sionary is speaks louder than what he says, and often 
the un- Christian attitudes of the country from which he 
comes, causes his message to fall on deaf ears. It is 
decided in America and in Europe how other lands will 
receive the gospel. 

266 Women and the Kingdom 

Growth of Churches . ^ "^^°"^ ^^^*°' aflfecting mis- 
on F'eld sionary work is the desire for self- 

determination on the part of the 
Christian Churches in so-called mission fields; closely re- 
lated to this is the rise of nationalism. The two re-act 
upon each other; it is often difficult to differentiate be- 
tween them. In the growth of churches on the mission 
fields the vision of the missionaries as well as of the 
workers at the home base is being realized. Some of 
these churches are still babes in Christ, some have 
reached childhood, but others are approaching maturity, 
and are ready to assume larger responsibility. Young 
people have been developed who are now able to become 
the heads of institutions and at the close of the fifty 
years in our oldest field, China, every school supported 
by the Woman's Missionary Council has a Chinese 
woman principal, except one ; these Chinese women are 
manifesting great ability as administrators. This sign 
of promise is cause for great rejoicing. 

The work of the Board of Missions in China has been 
administered by its secretaries and the bishop in charge 
of the field through the Mission, a body composed of the 
missionaries, both men and women. However, mis- 
sionaries and nationals, realizing that the time had ar- 
rived for the Chinese to have a part in forming policies 
and a voice in administration, formulated a constitution 
for a Central Conference of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. This constitution was recommended 
unanimously by both the China Annual Conference and 
the China Mission, with the bishop in charge of Oriental 
fields, and the two foreign secretaries of the Board 
present. At the recent session of the Board of Missions, 
this constitution was approved. The Council is com- 

Women and the Kingdom 267 

posed of eighty-three members, as follows: twenty cleri- 
cal members elected by the Annual Conference, ten 
women evangelistic workers elected by the Central Com- 
mittee on Deaconess and Bible Woman's work, twenty 
men and women elected by the layman's movement, 
twenty-five educational workers, ten of whom are elected 
by the Board of Trustees of Soochow University, ten by 
the Educational Committee of Woman's Work, five 
by the Board of Education of the Annual Conference, 
and eight medical workers, two chosen by each of the 
four hospital boards. 

The aim of the Council is twofold: to promote as 
rapidly as possible the complete autonomy of the Church 
in China, in response to the spirit of self-determination 
of the Chinese people, and to serve as a medium of 
cooperation between the Board of Missions in the 
United States and the Church in China. This Council 
will function in the place of the Mission until the au- 
tonomy of the China Church is perfected. 

^, , c^ ^ t A third factor that will affect the 

Changed Status of . . .... 

_, , TT7 1. missionary situation for the next 

Woman's Work _. "^. , , . ^ 

fifty years is the changing status of 

woman and woman's work in the Church. The change 
began when the General Conference granted laity rights 
to women. This action affected the women of our 
Methodism around the world, on mission fields as well 
as at home. Although a decade has passed women have 
hardly begun to take advantage of their new position, 
nor has the Church fully opened the doors of service to 
women. During the next fifty years, the results of this 
supreme effort of our peerless leader, Miss Belle Bennett, 
who strove to make the Church Christian in its attitude 
toward women, will begin to be realized. It was a great 

268 Women and the Kingdom 

missionary achievement. In 1926, the Woman's Mis- 
sionary Council, seeking to ascertain the extent to 
which women have entered into the privileges of lay 
membership, appointed a quadrennial Commission on 
the Status of Women in the Church. This Commission 
has been discovering the facts. The returns thus far 
indicate that the Church has yet a long way to go before 
the Christian ideal of the equality of men and women is 
realized. In the years ahead there may come other 
changes afifecting woman's status in the Church. Is it 
not possible that the rights of the clergy may be granted 

The woman's missionary organization of the Church 
has undergone significant changes during the past fifty 
years : 

1. In the beginning, the Woman's Boards were an 
addition to the regular missionary machinery of the 
Church, but since 1910, through the Woman's Mission- 
ary Council, woman's work has been organically con- 
nected with the General Board of Missions. 

2. Formerly women had no membership in the Gen- 
eral Board of Missions; now they have a guaranteed 
membership not only on the Board but in the Executive 

3. Formerly the home mission work of women was 
administered independently of the General Board, and 
the foreign work, while not entirely independent, was 
practically so. To-day the administration, as well as 
the promotion of the woman's work, is a function of the 
Board of Missions. 

4. Formerly there were no women secretaries in the 
General Board of Missions; now there are six in charge 
of Woman's Work. 

Women and the Kingdom 269 

5. Formerly the woman's organizations formed their 
own missionary policies; now the Woman's Missionary 
Council makes recommendations concerning these poli- 
cies to the Board of Missions. 

6. The money raised by women for missions, at 
present as formerly, is directed entirely to woman's 
work and recommendations regarding its distribution, 
in the form of estimates, are made in the annual session 
of the Woman's Missionary Council. 

A careful survey of the developments shows that tne 
tendency is toward a gradual integration of Woman's 
Work for Woman into the general missionary program of 
the Church. This trend has had its parallel in other de- 
nominational boards. This is undoubtedly due largely 
to the rapid changes that have come on the mission 
fields, creating a need for oneness of administration. 

The Church More ^ '^f ^^^ ^^^^^^^^^ .'^'^^f ^yj^'^' 
,,. . Butler on the occasion of the Silver 

Missionary a • i • i i i 

Anniversary, asking whether the 

Church, as a whole, would be more missionary at the 
close of the next twenty-five years, there can be but one 
answer. Two years before the Silver Anniversary the 
first great missionary Conference of the Southern Meth- 
odist Church was held in New Orleans. The member- 
ship was electrified by the thought of raising $50,000 for 
Soochow University! It seemed that the millennium 
had come! The growth of the missionary idea since 
that time is indicated by the Centenary movement; be- 
tween 1918 and 1926 the Church gave approximately 
$25,000,000 for the extension of the gospel around the 
world. There has been a great development in mission- 
ary education throughout the Church. In this the 
women have had an active part. 

270 Women and the Kingdom 

All factors affecting the future missionary situation 
look toward unity, including oneness of home and foreign 
missions, oneness of nationals and missionaries, oneness 
of men and women. We are reminded of Jesus' last 
prayer: "Neither for these only do I pray, but for them 
also that believe on me through their word ; that they 
'may all be one; even as thou, Father, art in me and I in 
thee, that they may be in us ; that the world may believe 
that thou didst send me." (John 17: 20, 21.) 

Signs of Promise from the Fields 

In facing the future missionary obligation considera- 
tion should be given to some of the new factors that call 
for change in missionary method and approach, also to 
the general outlook for the Christian movement in the 
countries where the Church is at work. Is there a 
sufficient basis of encouragement for continuing the 
work? Is the task in any sense completed? Is the giv- 
ing of money and the sending of missionaries still neces- 
sary and desired? Is the call as urgent as it was fifty 
years ago? 
_ ^, . The Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 

Outlook . , . . r 1 • 1 • 

. ^. . IS workmg m two of the eighteen provmces 

of China proper: the Kiangsuand Chekiang. 
They are both strategically located on the coast 
of east-central China. Some of the most important 
cities are in these provinces. The China Continuation 
Commission made a careful survey in 1922 of that 
section. According to the record, the Kiangsu province 
had a population of approximately 33,700,000 and the 
Christian Protestant constituency numbered approxi- 
mately 30,000. The extreme southern part of the prov- 
ince contains the following cities: Shanghai (1,500,000), 

Women and the Kingdom 271 

Nanking (300,000), Soochow (600,000), Sungkaing (100,- 
000), Wusih (150,000), Changchow (125,000), and 
Changshu (88,000). In all of these cities the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South has institutions and resident 

According to Milton Stauflfer, who compiled the sta- 
tistics, there are ten cities in the province of Kiangsu 
with a population of from 50,000 to 100,000 and twenty- 
cities with a population of from 20,000 to 50,000. In 
the entire rural area there are only fifty-seven mission- 
aries. Huchow, with a population of 100,000, is the 
only place in the Chekiang Province where the Method- 
ist Episcopal Church, South, has resident missionaries. 
This province, with a total population of approximately 
22,000,000, has 27,000 Protestant Christians. The 
missionary task, judged by these figures, is certainly in 
its pioneer stage. 

We cannot measure the task in China by the number 
yet unreached. The term unfinished task, as inter- 
preted by statistics, is of the past. There is an in- 
creased realization that the national Church will and 
should assume much of the responsibility. What, then, 
is the outlook for the Christian movement in new terms? 
China is in the throes of creating a new nation. "The 
sea is surging and the waves are high," but out of all 
the turmoil a great nation will be born. Temporarily, 
political issues have first place in the thinking of the 
people. Christianity in China is suffering from its 
foreignness. There is a decided attitude in China against 
all forms of foreign control. Cheng Ching Yi, the great- 
est leader of the Christian forces in China to-day, in 
writing for the Student Volunteer Movement regarding 
the problem of the Chinese Church, says: "China is not 

272 Women and the Kingdom 

anti-foreign, but anti-foreign control/' ^ This applies to 
both Church and State. The Christian Movement in 
China is in the throes of creating a Chinese Christian 
Church, which may express her own Hfe, a Church which 
Dr. Cheng characterized as "yet a babe in swaddling 
clothes." This development of the Chinese Church is 
of as great significance as the rebirth of the Chinese 
nation. This situation demands, and will continue to 
demand, important readjustments. What of the out- 
look for missions? Let Dr. Cheng speak for his own 
nation: "Our people are rubbing their eyes. They are 
standing on tip toes and with outstretched hands are 
crying: 'We want to see Jesus.'" Do they want mis- 
sionaries? Again hear Dr. Cheng: "The young and in- 
experienced Christian movement in China needs more 
spiritual help from the West. . . . We do not believe 
that the time has arrived for us to consider any material 
decrease in the number of missionaries, because of the 
increased number of Chinese Christian leaders." 

. The activities of the Methodist Episcopal 

. - Church, South, in Japan are concentrated 

about the beautiful Inland Sea on the Is- 
lands of Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikohu, most of the resi- 
dent centers being on the mainland of Honshu. In a 
population of 60,000,000 there are 300,000 Christians In 
Japan; 175,000 of this number are Protestants. There 
are said to be 1,000,000 people in Japan who accept 
Christian principles, but who are not allied with Chris- 
tian churches. Christianity has the strongest hold of 
any religion on the student classes. There are 47,000,000 
Buddhists; Buddhism is said to be In Its Golden Age. 

*Cheng, Ching Yi, China Her Own Interpreter, pages 94-115. 


Women and the Kingdom 273 

The increase in the number of communicants in Chris- 
tian churches in Japan is slow but steady. The num- 
ber of native ministers is increasing. Mr. J. S. Motoda, 
in an article on the Japanese Church, says: " Christianity 
in Japan may be compared to bamboo shoots. While 
still underground these shoots have extraordinary ca- 
pacity for development and enrichment. With the com- 
ing of rain they burst forth suddenly and grow with out- 
standing rapidity. The present is the period of quiet, 
unobtrusive development. The day of expansion will, 
in my judgment, come soon."^ There is a growing ap- 
preciation of religious training on the part of educators; 
Christianity is looked upon with favor as a character- 
building force. In an article on The Status of Christiani- 
ty, Mr. U. Kawaguchi characterized the Christian move- 
ment in Japan as denominational — fundamentally ortho- 
dox with general indifference to doctrinal discussion — 
with sociological tendencies — occidental and yet with a 
growing tendency toward a genuine Japanese type — 
and of strong conviction and self-consciousness.^ 

Are missionaries wanted and needed in Japan in the 
future? Let a Japanese answer: "Missionaries are 
needed because the native Christian workers are not 
sufficient in number for the evangelization of our people. 
. . . Missionaries are particularly needed because they 
represent a long history of Christian experience and tra- 
dition."^ Mr. U. Kawaguchi has gathered testimonies 

^Motoda, J. S., The Japanese Church, in ^^ Japan Speaks for 
Herself," pages 81-85. 

^Kawaguchi, U., The Status of Christianity, in '^ Japan Speaks 
for Herself," pages 51-75. 

^Motoda, J. S., The Japanese Church, in "Japan Speaks for 
Herself," pages 76-92. 


274 Women and the Kingdom 

from forty-three outstanding Christian leaders in Japan 
and says that of this number only five said that mis- 
sionaries were no longer needed. Twenty felt the need 
of them on certain conditions, and the others, without 
reservation, wanted them. Bishop Usaki, of the Japa- 
nese Methodist Church, said: "We need the foreign mis- 
sionary because there is plenty of virgin soil." Another 
said: "We need the missionaries because the Japanese 
workers are so few in number that they are unable to 
carry out the great Christian program." Seventy-five 
per cent of Japan's population is rural and is still un- 
evangelized. There is a special call for pioneers in rural 
evangelization. Are women especially needed? There 
are insistent calls for them to build hostels for women 
students in connection with the government schools. 
"Japan is still far behind in the higher education of 
women. Here is a great work that the Western Church 
can do at this time," says one Japanese leader. There is 
a call for social-evangelistic workers in country and city, 
a line of activity for which women at home and abroad 
have shown special adaptability. As long as there are 
800,000 young women in the factories of Japan, un- 
reached by the gospel, there will be a real need for 
women missionaries. 

^ , , . , . What is the outlook for mission- 

Outlook in Latin i • t-. m n/r • i 

ary work m Brazil, Mexico, and 

Cuba, the three Latin-American 
countries in which the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South, is working, countries in which the Roman Catho- 
lic Church has been for so many years the dominant 
factor? What are the signs of promise? In Mexico the 
outlook is very bright. It is even being said that Roman 
Catholicism is no longer the religion of Mexico. This 

Women and the Kingdom 275 

Church is suffering defeat because it has set itself against 
the upHft of the masses. The day of its domination is 
rapidly passing. The Protestant Church in Mexico is 
becoming self-conscious and aggressive. In Brazil, there 
remains much to be done ; three-fourths of the people are 
as yet untouched by the evangelical message. The in- 
tellectuals have not been reached by Protestantism, yet 
they are more open-minded to-day than ever before. 
Protestantism must come to them embodied in life, not 
dogma, and entirely divorced from imperialism and 
Anglo-Saxon superiority. 

Mr. Rodriguez, of Buenos Aires, in an article on The 
Evangelical Churches, writes: "Frequently we have the 
question asked among Protestants in the United States, 
'Are we justified in sending missionaries to establish 
evangelical Churches in Roman Catholic countries?' 
Justification, I think, is to be found in the rapid growth 
of our evangelical Church in Latin America, and in the 
eagerness with which those who come to know the un- 
adulterated teachings and ideals of Christ give them- 
selves unreservedly to the propagation of the faith. 
Because of its simplicity, its unusual purity, and its 
spiritual power, the gospel of Jesus Christ appeals to 
many of my countrymen. It comes with no other 
authority than its inherent force. This makes its appeal 
all the more imperative." ^ 

Are missionaries needed? In a country like Brazil 
where 5,000,000 of her 6,000,000 children have no ade- 
quate opportunity for an education, surely the mission 
school will be needed in the years ahead of us. There 
is a tremendous appeal for social-evangelistic work in a 

^Rodriguez, G., The Evangelical Churches, in " As Latin America 
Sees It." page 108. 

276 Women and the Kingdom 

statement like the following from the pen of a Brazilian 
writer: "If we take all the Latin-American countries 
together and consider them as one, we may state with- 
out fear of contradiction that the laborer in all this vast 
region lives under deplorable economic and social con- 
ditions. He has been exploi ted to the limit of endurance, 
and everything possible has been done to keep him in a 
stace of complete ignorance and submission. Very little 
has been done to better his physical, moral, and spiritual 

Does Latin America want missionaries? Let a Latin 
American answer: "We want the social missionaries to 
help raise the social conditions of our Indians and the 
poor. We want the educational missionaries to con- 
tribute to our knowledge, to lift our educational insti- 
tutions out of their medieval miasma. And we want 
women missionaries, for through our women Latin 
America can advance by decades in a day." 
_ , . . It is an interesting coincident that the 

Outlook in r ■, -r ■, -t r , r c^ , 

year oi the J ubilee tor the women oi South- 
ern Methodism is also the Golden Anni- 
versary of the Missionary Movement in the Belgian 
Congo. This Jubilee will be celebrated in Kinshasa, 
September, 1928. Surveys are being made in prepara- 
tion for the conference; this will give the last word on 
the outlook in the Congo. Out of 125,000,000 people in 
Africa, approximately 49,000,000 are Mohammedans, 
and 83,000,000 pagan. The Protestant Christians in the 
entire country number only about 3,000,000. 

When we evaluate the future task in Africa, there is 
great danger that we think in far too easy terms. We 
need to realize that nine-tenths of Africa is ruled by 
European nations. There are hundreds and thousands 

Women and the Kingdom 277 

of representatives of these nations in government and 
commercial employ in Africa. The political activities of 
these governments often cause the message of the mis- 
sionary to be unheeded. In Africa imperialism is at 
its height. In that continent inter-racial problems are to 
be found in their most acute forms. There is every- 
where a rising racial consciousness. The African is be- 
ginning to cry, "Africa for the Africans." He is often 
repelled by the Christianity professed by the white man 
and is setting up a separatist Church. 

The call from Africa is for education, and for the ap- 
plication of the gospel to the whole of life. It is thought 
that in Africa the greatest task of the missionary enter- 
prise is just ahead, although past achievements have 
been great. Do the Africans themselves want mission- 
aries? Let Mr. Max Yergan, a Young Men's Christian 
Association worker, in Africa, who spoke at the recent 
Student Volunteer Convention at Detroit, answer the 
question: "We Africans to-day require all the spiritual, 
moral, and social strengthening possible for us to receive. 
Without any hesitancy we register our fullest support of 
the missionary undertaking and express our great de- 
sire that the enterprise be carried forward, in the spirit 
and with the results which we believe God desires for it." 

Nowhere is the appeal of Woman'' s Work for Woman 
greater than in Africa. Her women are on the lowest 
scale of culture of any women to whom the Church is 
taking the gospel. These women can only be reached 
by Christ working through women. To-day the mis- 
sionary women of Korea, China, Brazil, and America 
are joining hands in a united eiTort for the womanhood 
of Africa. 

278 Women and the Kingdom 

Abiding Motives 

Consideration of the past years of missionary activity 
would be incomplete without scrutinizing the motives 
that have animated this endeavor. Our attitudes, as 
expressed in our records and our literature, reveal that 
we have not been always without offense. The highest 
motives have not been apparent at all times. 
_ Some of the terminology formerly used 

_, 'la must not be carried over into the future. 

Let us consider a few of these outworn 
terms. In the early days the -word foreign did not create 
unfavorable reactions, but as the years have passed and 
the world has become a unit, this word carries the idea 
of separation and alienation. 

In Christ there is no East or West, 
In him no North nor South, 
But one great fellowship of love 
Throughout the whole wide earth. 

The term natives we have outgrown seemingly and are 
now substituting the term nationals. This word has ac- 
quired an unfavorable connotation because of our supe- 
riority attitudes. The term heathen, for a similar reason, 
is taboo in missionary literature to-day. As Dr. Fleming 
suggests, we should no longer sing: 

Can we whose souls are lighted 

With wisdom from on high 
Can we, to men benighted 

The lamp of light deny?* 

We have come to realize more fully the meaning of the 
words: "Yet he left not himself without a witness." 
(Acts 14: 17.) There are patronizing and fraternizing 

^Fleming, Daniel Johnson, Whither Bound in Missions, page 3. 

Women and the Kingdom 279 

terms that are no longer expressive of the right atti- 
tudes: our converts, our natives, and our Christians. 
The word slum, once used so freely in city mission ter- 
minology, is being dropped because it has implications 
that we cannot apply to sections where people live whom 
we know and appreciate. The war terms of our mis- 
sionary vocabulary must be avoided if we are thinking 
in terms of world peace. Even the word missionary is 
being scrutinized to-day; there can be no denial that the 
missionary message is superior, but the term missionary 
is sometimes offensive when it carries the idea of a 
superior race ministering to those whom they consider 
to be of an inferior race. 

,. . Some motives, animating our endeavor 

M fives ^^ ^^^ past, are no longer worthy. The 

desire to carry our superior civilization to 
other peoples will not stand the test of to-day. Gandhi, 
of India, says: "We do not want your civilization; we 
want your Christ! " Even self-protection has sometimes 
been a motive influencing missionary effort. Immigra- 
tion regulations and uplift work for the Negro may be 
mentioned as examples of this. Denominational am- 
bition has sometimes motivated missionary activity. 
The extension of the Church rather than the Kingdom 
has been the aim. We have been more denominational 
than Christian at many stages in our missionary activi- 

nf .• rw.1. ^ rr/-.. In spItc of thcse unworthy motives 
Motives That Will ^ . . . , • , , 

c> J ^t. rt, ^ and un-Chnstian attitudes which have 
Stand the Test . , . ^ , . 

sometimes been manifest, there is no 

doubt but that the abiding and constraining motive 

throughout the years has been the love of Christ. The 

people to whom the message has been sent have been 

280 Women and the Kingdom 

regarded as potential children of God for whom Jesus 
Christ died. There has been felt a definite sense of com- 
pulsion to carry out Christ's last command. The mis- 
sionary enterprise has its source in the character of God 
as revealed in Jesus Christ. 

Women have had an added motive — a very deep sense 
of gratitude for what the gospel of Jesus Christ has done 
for woman. The religion of Jesus Christ is the only 
religion that has uplifted womanhood, and Christian 
women feel compelled to share it with the women of 
other lands. This consideration had an outstanding in- 
fluence on the discussion of comparative religion at the 
recent Jerusalem Conference. This feeling has been un- 
doubtedly a creative force in "Woman's Work for Wom- 
an." As long as there remain, in this or any other land, 
women who have not felt the uplifting power of the 
gospel, the women of the Missionary Sisterhood, around 
the world will seek to win them in the name of their 


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